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This page contains information about generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), health anxiety (hypochondriasis), panic disorder, phobia, and social anxiety.


Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Social Anxiety Disorder

Treatment guides

  • NICE guidelines for GAD and panic (January 2011)
  • NICE guidelines for social anxiety disorder (May 2013)
  • Treatment manual for general anxiety disorder
  • Treatment manual for panic disorder
  • Treatment manual for social phobia
  • Comprehensive cognitive behavior therapy for social phobia: a treatment manual – developed by Ledley, Foa, Huppert (2005)
  • Treatment manual for social anxiety disorder

Information handouts

Health anxiety

Panic disorder


  • Phobia self-help booklet from Glasgow STEPS including information about phobia and self-help interventions
  • Treatment manual and patient workbook

Social anxiety disorder

Exercises, Worksheets & Workbooks


  • Treatment manual and patient workbook


  • Clark, D. M. (1999). Anxiety disorders: why they persist and how to treat them. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, S5-S27

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • Behar, E., DiMarco, I. D., Hekler, E. B., Mohlman, J., Staples, A. M. (2009). Current theoretical models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): Conceptual review and treatment implications. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 1011-1023
  • Bottesi, G., Ghisi, M., Carraro, E., Barclay, N., Payne, R., & Freeston, M. H. (2016). Revising the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Evidence from UK and Italian Undergraduate Samples. Frontiers in psychology7, 1723

A number of treatment packages have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of GAD:

Laval model

  • Dugas, M. J., Gagnon, F., Ladouceur, R., & Freeston, M. H. (1998). Generalized anxiety disorder: A preliminary test of a conceptual model. Behaviour research and therapy36(2), 215-226.

Avoidance model of worry and GAD

  • Borkovec, T. D., Alcaine, O., & Behar, E. (2004). Avoidance theory of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder: Advances in research and practice2004.
  • Hjemdal, O., Hagen, R., Nordahl, H. M., & Wells, A. (2013). Metacognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Nature, evidence and an individual case illustration. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice20(3), 301-313

Metacognitive model

  • Hjemdal, O., Hagen, R., Nordahl, H. M., & Wells, A. (2013). Metacognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Nature, evidence and an individual case illustration. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice20(3), 301-313.
  • Wells, A. (1995). Meta-cognition and worry: A cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy23(3), 301-320

Emotional dysregulation model

  • Fresco, D. M., Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., & Ritter, M. (2013). Emotion regulation therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice20(3), 282-300
  • Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., Turk, C. L., & Fresco, D. M. (2002). Applying an emotion regulation framework to integrative approaches to generalized anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice9(1), 85-90

Acceptance-based model of GAD

  • Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2002). Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance‐based approaches with existing cognitive‐behavioral models. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice9(1), 54-68
  • Roemer, L., Salters, K., Raffa, S. D., & Orsillo, S. M. (2005). Fear and avoidance of internal experiences in GAD: Preliminary tests of a conceptual model. Cognitive Therapy and Research29(1), 71-88.

Health Anxiety

  • Asmundson, G. J. G., Abramowitz, J. S., Richter, A. A., Whedon, M. (2010). Health anxiety: current perspectives and future directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12, 306-312
  • Furer, P., Walker, J. R. (2008). Death anxiety: A cognitive behavioural approach. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22(2), 167-182
  • Salkovskis, P. M., Warwick, H. M. C., Deale, A. C. (2003). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Severe and Persistent Health Anxiety (Hypochondriasis). Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 3, 353-367
  • Walker, J. R., Furer, P. (2008). Interoceptive exposure in the treatment of health anxiety and hypochondirasis. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22(4), 366-378

Panic disorder

  • Clark D. M. (1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24:461–470.
  • Clark, D. A. (1999). Anxiety disorders: Why they persist and how to treat them. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, S5-S27
  • Schmidt, N. B., Woolaway-Bickel, K., Trakowski, J. et al. (2000). Dismantling cognitive-behavioural treatment for panic disorder: Questioning the utility of breathing retraining. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(3), 417-424
  • Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders. Chichester: Wiley.

Social Anxiety Disorder

  • Clark, D. M. (2001). A cognitive perspective on social phobia
  • Moscovitch, D. A. (2009). What is the core fear in social phobia? A new model to facilitate individualized case conceptualization and treatment. Cognitive and Behavioural Practice, 16. 123-134
  • Wild, Hackmann, Clark (2008). Rescripting early memories linked to negative images in social phobia: a pilot study. Behaviour Therapy, 39(1), 47-56. sciencedirect
  • Veale, D. (2003). Treatment of social phobia. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 9, 258-264

The Mental Health Research Group at the University of Huddersfield developed a self-help pack for anxiety.

The Centre for Clinical Interventions (CCI) is an Australian mental health organisation that conducts research, provides training and supervision, and offers a clinical service. They have made a really useful selection of materials for treating generalised anxiety disorder

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