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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

CBT works with our thoughts, feelings and behaviors. CBT therapists understand that by changing the way we think and act in the here-and-now, we can affect the way we feel. CBT can also be applied longitudinally to explore the origin of beliefs, rules and assumptions which shape an individual’s world-view: this knowledge can then be used to drive change in the present. There are evidence-based CBT models (and associated treatment protocols) for a wide range of range of disorders, but CBT can also be used to formulate (conceptualize) cases individually.

“CBT is an amalgam of behavioral and cognitive interventions guided by the principles of applied science. The behavioral interventions aim to decrease maladaptive behaviors and increase adaptive ones by modifying their antecedents and consequences and by behavioral practices that result in new learning. The cognitive interventions aim to modify maladaptive cognitions, self-statements or beliefs. The hallmark features of CBT are problem-focused intervention strategies that are derived from learning theory [as well as] cognitive theory principles.” Craske (2009)

Cognitive therapy competence / adherence measures

  • The unified protocol for the transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders – presentation by Dr Ellen Frank & Fiona Ritchey acpsych.org  archive.org
  • Transdiagnostic treatments for anxiety disorders – Dr Martin Anthony ccpa-accp.ca  archive.org
  • Arch, J. J., & Craske, M. G. (2009). First-line treatment: a critical appraisal of cognitive behavioral therapy developments and alternatives. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32(3), 525-547 colorado.edu semanticscholar.org archive.org
  • Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses. Cognitive therapy and research, 36(5), 427-440 nih.gov
  • Padesky, C. A., Mooney, K. A. (1990). Clinical tip: presenting the cognitive model to clients. International Cognitive Therapy Newsletter, 6, 13-14 padesky.com archive.org
  • A therapists’ guide to brief cognitive behavioral therapy by Cully & Teten mirecc.va.gov

This series of articles are good introduction to the basics of CBT. The authors have gone on to sell a branded form of CBT using some of these metaphors / explanation but the messages apply equally to generic CBT.

  • Williams, C., & Garland, A. (2002). A cognitive–behavioural therapy assessment model for use in everyday clinical practice. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 8(3), 172-179. rcpsych.org
  • Garland, A., Fox, R., & Williams, C. (2002). Overcoming reduced activity and avoidance: a Five Areas approach. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 8(6), 453-462. rcpsych.org
  • Williams, C., & Garland, A. (2002). Identifying and challenging unhelpful thinking. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 8(5), 377-386. rcpsych.org
  • Wright, B., Williams, C., & Garland, A. (2002). Using the Five Areas cognitive–behavioural therapy model with psychiatric patients. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 8(4), 307-315. rcpsych.org

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