Skip to main content

CBT Case Conceptualization / Case Formulation / Cognitive-Behavioral Models

Case formulation is the core component of CBT. It can help therapists and clients to understand the origin, current status, and maintenance of problem. Formulations can range from cross-sectional (here and now) to longitudinal (understanding origins), and from models for specific disorders to idiosyncratic for a particular client’s situation.

“[Formulation is] The lynch pin that holds theory and practice together” (Butler, 1998)

  • Collaborative Case Conceptualization Rating Scale (CCC-RS) | Kuyken, Padesky, Dudley | 2009
    • Rating scale & coding manual download archived copy
    • Score sheet & feedback form download archived copy
    • Kuyken, W., Beshai, S., Dudley, R., Abel, A., Görg, N., Gower, P., … & Padesky, C. A. (2016). Assessing competence in collaborative case conceptualization: Development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Collaborative Case Conceptualization Rating Scale (CCC-RS). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy44(2), 179-192. download archived copy



  • The case formulation approach to cognitive behavior therapy| Jacqueline Persons | 2014  download   archived copy
  • A case formulation approach to cognitive-behavior therapy | Jacqueline Persons | 2015  download   archived copy
  • The role of a case conceptualization model and core tasks of intervention | Donald Miechenbaum   download  archived copy
  • Cafe formulation in cognitive-behavioral therapy | Caleb Lack download archived copy

Case formulation / Case conceptualization

  • Geisser, S., & Rizvi, S. L. (2014). The Case of” Sonia” Through the Lens of Dialectical Behavior Therapy. Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy10(1), 30-39. download archived copy
  • Haynes, S. N., Leisen, M. B., Blaine, D. D. (1997). Design of individualized behavioral treatment programs using functional analytic clinical case models. Psychological Assessment, 9(4), 334-348 download   archived copy
  • Kuyken, W., Padesky, C. A., Dudley, R. (2008). The science and practice of case conceptualization. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 757-768  download  archived copy
  • Persons, J. B., & Lisa, S. T. (2015). Developing and Using a Case Formulation to Guide Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy, 5(2), 1  download archived copy
  • Special issue: Team formulation. (2015). Clinical Psychology Forum, 275. download archived copy

Cognitive Behavioral Models Of Disorders

  • Boelen, P. A., van den Hout, M. A., & van den Bout, J. (2006). A Cognitive-Behavioral Conceptualization of Complicated Grief. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 13(2), 109–128.
  • Borkovec, T. D., Alcaine, O., & Behar, E. (2004). Avoidance theory of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder: Advances in research and practice2004.
  • Chapman, A. L., Gratz, K. L., & Brown, M. Z. (2006). Solving the puzzle of deliberate self-harm: The experiential avoidance model.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(3), 371–394.
  • Clark, D. M. (1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24(4), 461-470.
  • Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment41(68), 00022-3.
  • Dugas, M. J., Gagnon, F., Ladouceur, R., & Freeston, M. H. (1998). Generalized anxiety disorder: A preliminary test of a conceptual model. Behaviour research and therapy36(2), 215-226.
  • Ehlers, A., & Clark, D. M. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(4), 319-345.
  • Espie, C. A. (2002). Insomnia: conceptual issues in the development, persistence, and treatment of sleep disorder in adults. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 215–243.
  • Fairburn, C. G., Cooper, Z., & Shafran, R. (2003). Cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders: A “transdiagnostic” theory and treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(5), 509-528.
  • Fennell, M. J. (1997). Low self-esteem: A cognitive perspective. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25(1), 1-26.
  • Fernie, B. A., Bharucha, Z., Nikčević, A. V., Marino, C., & Spada, M. M. (2017). A Metacognitive model of procrastination. Journal of Affective Disorders, 210, 196-203.
  • Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Freeman, D., & Bebbington, P. E. (2001). A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 31(2), 189-195.
  • Harvey, A. G. (2002). A cognitive model of insomnia. Behavior Research and Therapy, 40, 869–894.
  • Heimberg, R. G., & Becker, R. E. (1981). Cognitive and behavioral models of assertive behavior: Review, analysis and integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 1(3), 353-373.
  • Mansueto, C. S., Golomb, R. G., Thomas, A. M., & Stemberger, R. M. T. (1999). A comprehensive model for behavioral treatment of trichotillomania. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 6(1), 23-43.
  • Marlatt, G. A. (1985). Relapse prevention: Theoretical rationale and overview of the
    model. In G. A. Marlatt & J. R. Gordon (Eds.), Relapse prevention (1st ed., pp.
    280–250). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Morrison, A. P. (2001). The interpretation of intrusions in psychosis: an integrative cognitive approach to hallucinations and delusions. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29(3), 257-276.
  • Moscovitch, D. A. (2009). What is the core fear in social phobia? A new model to facilitate individualized case conceptualization and treatment. Cognitive and Behavioural Practice, 16. 123-134
  • Salkovskis, P. M., Forrester, E., & Richards, C. (1998). Cognitive–behavioral approach to understanding obsessional thinking. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(S35), 53-63.
  • Salkovskis, P. M., Warwick, H. M. C., Deale, A. C. (2003). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Severe and Persistent Health Anxiety (Hypochondriasis). Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 3, 353-367
  • Vlaeyen, J. W. S., & Linton, S. J. (2000). Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a state of the art. Pain, 85(3), 317–332.
  • Wells, A. (1995). Meta-cognition and worry: A cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy23(3), 301-320
  • Whalley, M. G., & Cane, D. A. (2017). A cognitive-behavioral model of persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 24(1), 72-89.

Sign Up To The Free Newsletter

Early access – get informed about the latest resources first

Research summaries – stay informed about developments in therapy research

No spam – newsletters delivered monthly, we won’t share your details with anyone else

Confidence assured – unsubscribe at any time