Welcome to the November 2018 newsletter from Psychology Tools. This month we’re really pleased to announce the publication of our new eBook Psychology Tools for Living Well.

New On Psychology Tools

We are excited to announce the publication of our new eBook Psychology Tools for Living Well, available exclusively to members. Designed to help your clients understand the fundamentals of CBT it is a fantastic way to support their progress in therapy, or to increase ambivalent clients’ motivation to engage.

There is a survival advantage in being able to recognise and act on physiological states such as hunger, thirst, or pain. For example, if we are too warm we are motivated to ‘correct’ this by moving to somewhere shady. We use the same strategies to manage our emotions, and psychological therapists commonly encounter clients whose actions to ‘correct’ feelings inadvertently lead to the maintenance of the client’s difficulties.

We won an award

We’re happy to share that Psychology Tools was the recipient of a recent Best of the Counseling and Mental Health Web award from the Mastering Counseling podcast.

You can listen to the episode here.

Psychology Video


Dr Mark Jensen is the editor of the Journal of Pain, and authors of the Treatments That Work title Hypnosis for chronic pain management. This 55 minute video is a lecture he gave in 2011 summarizing contemporary knowledge about the neuroscience of pain, and the use of hypnosis as an evidence-based treatment for acute and chronic pain. You will need to register with your name and email address to watch the video.

Psychology Research

Mood and anxiety disorders are characterized by high levels of comorbidity, which is itself associated with poorer outcomes and higher rates of relapse. A new study by David Barlow and colleagues compared the effects of delivering single disorder protocols (SDP) with the transdiagnostic Unified Protocol (UP) upon reductions in comorbid conditions post-therapy.

“The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders is a transdiagnostic, cognitive-behavioral intervention consisting of 5 core modules that target the … temperamental characteristics underlying all anxiety, depressive, and related disorders.”

At the start of the study all participants had a diagnosis of at least one of: panic, GAD, OCD, social anxiety. Both forms of treatment resulted in client improvement with significant effect sizes.

“Contrary to expectations, significant differences were not found when comparing the UP and SDP in the reduction of comorbid psychopathology; that is, both treatments led to decreases in mean number of diagnoses, and decline in symptoms of co-occurring conditions on disorder-specific measures.”

Steele, S. J., Farchione, T. J., Cassiello-Robbins, C., Ametaj, A., Sbi, S., Sauer-Zavala, S., & Barlow, D. H. (2018). Efficacy of the Unified Protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of comorbid psychopathology accompanying emotional disorders compared to treatments targeting single disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research104, 211-216.


Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, often associated with alterations in memory and physiological alterations in response to threat, include flashbacks, nightmares, dissociation, and somatic symptoms.

The incidence of auditory verbal hallucinations in clients with PTSD has previously been reported to be as high as 67%. Georgina Clifford and colleagues used the DES-II and a structured interview with a sample of individuals suffering from PTSD resulting from physical and sexual trauma. They found that although nearly half of their sample endorsed experiencing a ‘stream of thoughts’, only 5% reported experiencing repetitive thoughts in the form of a voice speaking to them. The authors raise the possibility that ‘hearing voices’ items on measures like the DES-II capture rumination and internal self-talk, and argue that perhaps auditory hallucinations in PTSD should be better conceptualized as a form of intrusive memory.

Clifford, G., Dalgleish, T., & Hitchcock, C. (2018). Prevalence of auditory pseudohallucinations in adult survivors of physical and sexual trauma with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Behaviour Research and Therapy.