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Intolerance Of Uncertainty

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Therapy tool

Checking Certainty And Doubt

Psychologists have discovered interesting relationships between Checking, Certainty, And Doubt. This information handout contains an exercise helpful ...

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD: Dugas, Gagnon, Ladouceur, Freeston, 1998)

Individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) report significant worry which they find difficult to control and experience as distressing. Numer ...

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Intolerance Of Uncertainty (Hebert, Dugas, 2019)

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been defined as “an underlying fear of the unknown”. Intolerance of uncertainty is a risk factor for the deve ...

Information Handout

Embracing Uncertainty

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) was first described in individuals suffering from Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Many behaviors associated with G ...


Intolerance Of Uncertainty

Uncertainty is a normal part of life – we can never be 100% sure about what will happen next. Many people feel good about uncertainty and live lives ...

Information Handout

Living With Worry And Anxiety Amidst Global Uncertainty

This free guide was published in March 2020 in response to the coronavirus pandemic and is designed for anyone experiencing anxiety or worry. In times ...

Free Guide

Recognizing Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is characterized by an extended period of excessive worry. The DSM also emphasizes the importance of the client’s ...

Information Handout

Uncertainty Beliefs – Experiment Record

Situations which are uncertain, novel, or ambiguous trigger a state of uncertainty. Evidence indicates that individuals who are dispositionally high i ...


Understanding Generalized Anxiety And Worry

Our ‘Understanding…’ series is a collection of psychoeducation guides for common mental health conditions. Friendly and explanatory, they are co ...


What Keeps Generalized Anxiety And Worry Going?

The “What Keeps It Going?” series is a set of one-page diagrams explaining how common mental health conditions are maintained. Friendly and concis ...

Information Handout


Information Handouts


The UNiCORN team, led by Professor Mark Freeston, research models, mechanisms, and treatments for uncertainty distress. They have published a selection of materials and measures.



  • Using strategies from anxiety treatments to target uncertainty distress | Mark Freeston | 2020 view
  • It’s not just the threat, it’s the uncertainty: Understanding and managing uncertainty and distress | Mark Freeston | 2020 view

Recommended Reading

  • Freeston, M. H., Tiplady, A., Mawn, L., Bottesi, G., & Thwaites, S. (2020). Towards a model of uncertainty distress in the context of Coronavirus (Covid-19). the Cognitive Behaviour Therapist.  download
  • Milne, S., Lomax, C., & Freeston, M. H. (2019). A review of the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and threat appraisal in anxiety. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist12.
  • Pepperdine, E., Lomax, C., & Freeston, M. H. (2018). Disentangling intolerance of uncertainty and threat appraisal in everyday situations. Journal of anxiety disorders57, 31-38.
  • Shihata, S., McEvoy, P. M., Mullan, B. A., & Carleton, R. N. (2016). Intolerance of uncertainty in emotional disorders: What uncertainties remain?. Journal of anxiety disorders41, 115-124. download archived copy