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Mechanisms

Avoidance, Cognitive bias, Conditioning, Perfectionism, Repetitive thought, Safety behaviors, Schema maintenance
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Problem

Therapy tool

Language

A Guide To Emotions (Psychology Tools For Living Well)

Cognitive behavioral therapy can help your clients to live happier and more fulfilling lives. Psychology Tools for Living Well is a self-help course ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/a-guide-to-emotions-psychology-tools-for-living-well/

Chapter

Activity Diary

Activity diaries can be used for activity monitoring during an assessment phase of therapy, symptom monitoring during therapy, correlating activity wi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/activity-diary/

Worksheet

Activity Diary (No Time Slots)

Activity diaries can be used for activity monitoring during an assessment phase of therapy, symptom monitoring during therapy, correlating activity wi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/activity-diary-no-times/

Worksheet

Anger Thought Challenging Record

Disputing thoughts is a critical skill in cognitive therapy. The Anger Thought Monitoring Record helps clients to identify and challenge their angry t ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/anger-thought-challenging-record/

Worksheet

Approach Instead Of Avoiding (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses avoi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/approach-instead-of-avoiding-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

Assertive Communication

Communicating assertively is an essential skill for maintaining healthy self-esteem and strong relationships. This information handout describes the k ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/assertive-communication/

Information Handout

Avoidance Hierarchy

Avoidance and safety-seeking behavior serves to maintain anxiety, and exposure to the fear stimuli/situation is an effective treatment for anxiety. Th ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/avoidance-hierarchy/

Exercise

Behavioral Experiment

Behavioral experiments allow individuals to test the validity of their beliefs and assumptions. They are a core experiential technique for therapeutic ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/behavioral-experiment/

Worksheet

Belief Driven Formulation

Cognitive behavioral theory proposes that our thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the here-and-now are influenced by our schemas / core beliefs / assu ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/belief-driven-formulation/

Worksheet

Catching Your Thoughts (CYP)

Before thoughts can be examined or challenged they must be ‘caught’ – they must be noticed and distinguished from events and feelings. The Catch ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/catching-your-thoughts-cyp/

Worksheet

CBT Thought Record

The CBT Thought Record is an essential tool in cognitive behavioral therapy. Thought challenging records help people to evaluate their negative automa ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cbt-thought-record/

Worksheet

Challenging Your Negative Thinking

A cornerstone of cognitive behavioral therapy is that an individual’s interpretation of an event determines how they feel and behave. We all experie ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/challenging-your-negative-thinking/

Guide

Checking Certainty And Doubt

Psychologists have discovered interesting relationships between Checking, Certainty, And Doubt. This information handout contains an exercise helpful ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/checking-certainty-and-doubt/

Exercise

Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is a process by which stimuli become associated with responses. This information handout describes key principles of Classical ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/classical-conditioning/

Information Handout

Coercive Methods For Enforcing Compliance

Individuals who have experienced abuse often focus on their own actions (or inactions) and blame themselves for their own abuse. This client informati ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/coercive-methods-for-enforcing-compliance/

Exercise

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Anorexia Nervosa (2003)

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by restriction of energy intake and intense fear of gaining weight. For women, the lifetime preva ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-anorexia-nervosa-2003/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) (2004)

Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) experience distress associated with their body image. The Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Body Dysmorphi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder-bdd-2004/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Bulimia Nervosa (2003)

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging. Among young women, the point prevalence of bulimia is about 1 ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-bulimia-nervosa-2003/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Fear Of Bodily Sensations (2018)

Fear of bodily sensations is present in a number of conditions, most notably panic disorder. The Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Fear Of Bodily Sensatio ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-fear-of-bodily-sensations-2018/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (1998)

Individuals with generalized anxiety disorder report clinically significant worry alongside physical arousal. The Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Genera ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad-1998/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Health Anxiety (2003)

Individuals with health anxiety experience clinically significant distress associated with health concerns. The Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Health A ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-health-anxiety-2003/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Health Anxiety (2018)

The Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Health Anxiety describes maintaining factors which prolong distress in health-anxious clients. The formulation is pr ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-health-anxiety-2018/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (1998)

The essential insight of the cognitive behavioral model of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is that it is the client’s interpretation of the intr ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-1998/

Worksheet

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Panic (1986)

The Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Panic identifies catastrophic misinterpretation of body sensations as a criticial maintenance factor which serves to ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-panic-1986/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness (PPPD) (2017)

Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is a form of dizziness which is thought to be maintained by psychological factors. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness-pppd-2017/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Tinnitus (2014)

The Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Tinnitus identifies cognitive, behavioral, and perceptual changes which operate to maintain tinnitus perception and ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-tinnitus-2014/

Information Handout

Core Belief Magnet Metaphor

Core beliefs (schemas) are self-sustaining. They act to ‘attract’ confirmatory evidence and ‘repel’ (or distort) disconfirmato ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/core-belief-magnet-metaphor/

Information Handout

Court Trial Thought Challenging Record

Thought challenging records are commonly used in CBT to help people to evaluate their negative automatic thoughts for accuracy and bias. This Thought ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/court-trial-thought-challenging-record/

Worksheet

Daily Record of Dysfunctional Thoughts

Thought challenging records are commonly used in CBT to help people to evaluate their negative automatic thoughts for accuracy and bias. The Daily Rec ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/daily-record-of-dysfunctional-thoughts/

Worksheet

Dysfunctional Thought Record

The Dysfunctional Thought Record is a Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) tool to record and challenge dysfunctional thoughts. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/dysfunctional-thought-record/

Worksheet

Emotions Motivate Actions

Many clients find it helpful to recognize the range of actions that are motivated by different emotional states. This worksheet encourages clients to ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotions-motivate-actions/

Information Handout

Exposure And Response Prevention

Exposure And Response Prevention (ERP, EX/RP) is an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). This CBT worksheet guides therapists ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/exposure-and-response-prevention/

Exercise

Exposure Practice Form

Exposure is an effective treatment for many forms of anxiety. The Exposure Practice Form is a CBT worksheet which guides therapists and clients throug ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/exposure-practice-form/

Exercise

Fact Or Opinion

One cognitive error which commonly results in distress is to act on our opinions as though they were facts. This CBT exercise helps clients to practic ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/fact-or-opinion/

Exercise

Fight or Flight (CYP)

The Fight Or Flight (CYP) information handout has been specifically designed for younger children and includes carefully simplified language. The full ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/fight-or-flight-cyp/

Information Handout

Habituation

The Habituation information sheets are designed to help clinicians to explain the concept of habituation and its role in exposure therapy. The handout ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/habituation/

Information Handout

Health Anxiety Thought Record

Individuals with health anxiety experience clinically significant distress associated with health concerns. This thought-challenging record enables cl ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/health-anxiety-thought-record/

Worksheet

Hindsight Bias

Survivors of loss or trauma often think “If only …”. Hindsight Bias is a cognitive bias / cognitive illusion which makes events seem mor ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/hindsight-bias/

Information Handout

Interoceptive Exposure

Misappraisals of body sensations trigger emotional and physiological reactions of fear and heightened arousal. These feelings motivate behavioral resp ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/interoceptive-exposure/

Exercise

Intrusive Memory Record

Intrusive (unwanted, involuntary) memories are a common feature of PTSD, but also depression and other conditions. This Intrusive Memory Record is des ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/intrusive-memory-record/

Worksheet

Intrusive Thoughts Images And Impulses

Intrusive Thoughts, Images, And Impulses that are experienced as distressing are a feature of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). They are also a com ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/intrusive-thoughts-images-and-impulses/

Exercise

Maintenance Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

An important treatment implication of the cognitive behavioral model of OCD is that clinicians can work at the level of the meaning of the intrusion. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/maintenance-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/

Worksheet

Maximizing The Effectiveness Of Exposure Therapy

Despite its position as the leading treatment technique for anxiety disorders, not all clients respond to exposure therapy and some individuals relaps ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/maximizing-the-effectiveness-of-exposure-therapy/

Information Handout

OCD Hierarchy

Part of traditional CBT treatment for OCD is exposure to situations which trigger obsessions (classically accompanied by the prevention of the associa ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/ocd-hierarchy/

Exercise

Operant Conditioning

Operant conitioning / instrumental learning is a mechanism by which behaviors can be strengthened or weakened over time. This information handout desc ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/operant-conditioning/

Information Handout

Pacing For Pain And Fatigue

Pacing is an evidence-based approach to increasing activity and fitness, and in reducing overall pain and fatigue. It is designed to prevent ‘bo ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/pacing-for-pain-and-fatigue/

Exercise

Positive Belief Record

Some cognitive change can happen quickly – for example challenging negative automatic thoughts. Other cognitive structures such as schemas are m ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/positive-belief-record/

Worksheet

Problem Solving (CYP)

Effective problem solving is an essential life skill and this Problem Solving worksheet is designed to guide children and adolescents through steps wh ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/problem-solving-cyp/

Worksheet

Process Focused Case Formulation

The Process-Focused Case Formulation encourages clinicians to make hypotheses regarding mechanisms or processes which they believe may be maintainin ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/process-focused-case-formulation/

Worksheet

Prompts For Challenging Negative Thinking

The CBT model proposes that how we think affects the way we feel. Challenging our unhelpful thoughts (cognitive restructuring) is an essential skill w ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/prompts-for-challenging-negative-thinking/

Information Handout

Recognizing Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is characterized the restriction of energy intake, leading to a severely low weight in the context of an individual’s age, sex, and ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/recognizing-anorexia-nervosa/

Information Handout

Recognizing Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. Recognizing Bulimia Nervosa ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/recognizing-bulimia-nervosa/

Information Handout

Rumination Diary

Self-monitoring of thoughts, feelings, and symptoms is an essential skill in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The Rumination Diary helps clients to ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/rumination-diary/

Worksheet

Rumination Self-Monitoring Record

Rumination-Focused CBT (RF-CBT) takes a functional-analytic approach to rumination and aims to help depressed clients to identify the contexts in whic ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/rumination-self-monitoring-record/

Worksheet

Safety Behaviors

Safety behaviors are actions carried out with the intention of preventing a feared catastrophe. In the short-term they often give a sense of relief, b ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/safety-behaviors/

Information Handout

Safety Behaviors Example

Safety behaviors are actions carried out with the intention of preventing a feared catastrophe. In the short-term they often give a sense of relief, b ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/safety-behaviors-example/

Information Handout

Schema Bias

Core beliefs (schemas) are self-sustaining. They act to ‘attract’ confirmatory evidence and ‘repel’ or ‘distort’ d ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/schema-bias/

Information Handout

Schema Formulation

Beck’s cognitive model proposes that cognition and perception in the here-and-now is influenced by our ‘schemas’ which shape our per ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/schema-formulation/

Worksheet

Schema Metaphors

Core beliefs (schemas) are self-sustaining. They act to ‘attract’ confirmatory evidence and ‘repel’ or ‘distort’ d ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/schema-metaphors/

Information Handout

Stages Of Social Anxiety

Stages of Social Anxiety is a CBT worksheet to explore maintaining factors with a client and then to explore possible treatment strategies. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/stages-of-social-anxiety/

Worksheet

Stimulus Discrimination (Audio)

Stimulus Discrimination is designed to help people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to ‘retrain their brain’ in order to attend automat ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/stimulus-discrimination-audio/

Audio

Thought Challenging Record 7 Column

The thought record is an essential tool in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Thought challenging records help people to evaluate their negative auto ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thought-challenging-record-7-column/

Worksheet

Thought Distortion Monitoring Record

Thinking is often biased in particular ways and individuals often have their own characteristic patterns of bias. The Thought Distortion Monitoring Re ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thought-distortion-monitoring-record/

Worksheet

Thought Suppression And Intrusive Thoughts

Suppression is a common approach to unwanted thoughts, worriers, doubts, or urges. Unfortunately, there are good reasons why this strategy fails. This ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thought-suppression-and-intrusive-thoughts/

Information Handout

Thoughts And Depression

Depression is associated with cognitive biases, one of which is a failure to notice positive information. This information handout presents this conce ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thoughts-and-depression/

Information Handout

Thoughts In CBT (Psychology Tools For Living Well)

Cognitive behavioral therapy can help your clients to live happier and more fulfilling lives. Psychology Tools for Living Well is a self-help course ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thoughts-in-cbt-psychology-tools-for-living-well/

Chapter

Transdiagnostic Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Eating Disorders (2003)

Fairburn, Cooper & Shafran (2003) argue that eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia share common maintenance mechanisms despite difference ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/transdiagnostic-cognitive-behavioral-model-of-eating-disorders-2003/

Information Handout

Unhelpful Thinking Styles

Human thinking is subject to a number of characteristic biases. Cognitive restructuring is the process of helping individuals to overcome their biases ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/unhelpful-thinking-styles/

Information Handout

What If

“What if…?” questions are a powerful way in which anxious individuals generate or maintain anxious states, particularly in generaliz ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/what-if/

Exercise

What Is Rumination?

Rumination and repetitive thought is a transdiagnostic maintenance process underpinning a range of difficulties. This information sheet explores the c ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/what-is-rumination/

Information Handout

Worry Decision Tree

Worry is a cognitive process that involves thinking about problems that might happen in a way that can leave you feeling anxious or apprehensive. Not ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/worry-decision-tree/

Exercise

Worry Diary

In the initial stages of treatment for GAD it is helpful to orient clients to observing their worries as a process rather than focus on their content. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/worry-diary/

Worksheet

Worry Postponement

Worry postponement is often prescribed as an exploratory or standalone intervention relatively early in the treatment of GAD, but ‘worry postponeme ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/worry-postponement/

Exercise

Worry Thought Record

Anxiety stems from negative predictions about the future (and also from assumptions that one will not be able to cope with the magnitude of the threat ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/worry-thought-record/

Worksheet