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Supervision (Clinical/Professional Supervision)

Clinical supervision is an essential part of psychological therapy. Clinical supervision is understood as “the formal provision of a relationship-based education and training that is case-focused and which manages, supports, develops and evaluates the work of junior colleagues” (Milne, 2007) or as “a means of transmitting the skills, knowledge and attitudes of a particular profession to the next generation of professionals” (Bernard & Goodyear, 2004). Read more
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Maximizing The Effectiveness Of Exposure Therapy

Despite its position as the leading treatment technique for anxiety disorders, not all clients respond to exposure therapy and some individuals relaps ...

Information Handout

Operant Conditioning

Operant conitioning / instrumental learning is a mechanism by which behaviors can be strengthened or weakened over time. This information handout desc ...

Information Handout

Process Model Of Supervision

Hawkins & Shohet proposed a helpful structure for reflecting upon the focus of a supervision session. This information sheet includes example ques ...

Information Handout

Reciprocal CBT Formulation

CBT therapists often describe finding it difficult to apply CBT skills when clients bring relational problems to therapy. Familiar methods of visua ...


Stages Of Change

The Stages Of Change model is helpful for conceptualizing the mental states of individuals at different stages of their change journey. This informati ...

Information Handout

Supervision Preparation

A common CBT approach to supervision is to frame discussion around a supervisee’s question. This worksheet can guide supervisee’s reflecti ...


Transdiagnostic Processes

A ‘transdiagnostic process’ is the label given to a mechanism which is present across disorders and which is either a risk or maintaining factor f ...

Information Handout


A range of measures of supervision have been developed by the Oxford Clinical Supervision Research Group:

Other measures include:

Cognitive Therapy Competence / Adherence Measures




Recommended Reading


  • Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2004). Fundamentals of clinical supervision(3rd ed.). London: Pearson.
  • Milne, D. (2007). An empirical definition of clinical supervision. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(4), 437–447.
  • Milne, D. (2009). Evidence-based clinical supervision: Principles and practice. Malden, MA: BPS Blackwell.