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Supervision (Clinical/Professional Supervision)

Clinical supervision is an essential part of psychological therapy. Clinical supervision is understood as “the formal provision of a relationship-based education and training that is case-focused and which manages, supports, develops and evaluates the work of junior colleagues” (Milne, 2007) or as “a means of transmitting the skills, knowledge and attitudes of a particular profession to the next generation of professionals” (Bernard & Goodyear, 2004). Read more
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A range of measures of supervision have been developed by the Oxford Clinical Supervision Research Group:

Other measures include:

Cognitive Therapy Competence / Adherence Measures


  • Borden’s model of the supervisory working alliance – Borden (1983)
  • Process model of supervision – Hawkins & Shohet (2012)
  • Systems model of the supervisory relationship – Holloway (1995)



Recommended Reading

  • Bennett-Levy, J., McManus, F., Westling, B. E., & Fennell, M. (2009). Acquiring and refining CBT skills and competencies: which training methods are perceived to be most effective?. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy37(5), 571-583. download archived copy
  • Gordon, P. K. (2012). Ten steps to cognitive behavioural supervision. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist5(4), 71-82.  download archived copy
  • Hawkins, P., Shohet, R. (2012). Supervision in the helping professions. Open University Press
  • Pretorius, W. M. (2006). Cognitive behavioural therapy supervsision: recommended practice. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34, 413-420  download archived copy
  • Roscoe, J. (2021). Conceptualising and managing supervisory drift. the Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 14. download archived copy


  • Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2004). Fundamentals of clinical supervision(3rd ed.). London: Pearson.
  • Milne, D. (2007). An empirical definition of clinical supervision. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(4), 437–447.
  • Milne, D. (2009). Evidence-based clinical supervision: Principles and practice. Malden, MA: BPS Blackwell.