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Supervision (Clinical/Professional Supervision)

Clinical supervision is an essential part of psychological therapy. Clinical supervision is understood as “the formal provision of a relationship-based education and training that is case-focused and which manages, supports, develops and evaluates the work of junior colleagues” (Milne, 2007) or as “a means of transmitting the skills, knowledge and attitudes of a particular profession to the next generation of professionals” (Bernard & Goodyear, 2004). Read more
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Resource type


Therapy tool

Maximizing The Effectiveness Of Exposure Therapy

Despite its position as the leading treatment technique for anxiety disorders, not all clients respond to exposure therapy and some individuals relaps ...

Information Handout

Operant Conditioning

Operant conitioning / instrumental learning is a mechanism by which behaviors can be strengthened or weakened over time. This information handout desc ...

Information Handout

Process Model Of Supervision

Hawkins & Shohet proposed a helpful structure for reflecting upon the focus of a supervision session. This information sheet includes example ques ...

Information Handout

PTSD Formulation

This PTSD Formulation is designed for use in trauma-focused cognitive therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD): an empirically supported treatment for Post-Traumati ...


Reciprocal CBT Formulation

CBT therapists often describe finding it difficult to apply CBT skills when clients bring relational problems to therapy. Familiar methods of visua ...


Stages Of Change

The Stages Of Change model is helpful for conceptualizing the mental states of individuals at different stages of their change journey. This informati ...

Information Handout

Supervision Preparation

A common CBT approach to supervision is to frame discussion around a supervisee’s question. This worksheet can guide supervisee’s reflecti ...


Therapy Blueprint For Social Anxiety

A therapy blueprint represents the past (the problems, what maintained them), the present (the therapy itself, new knowledge learned and skills develo ...


Transdiagnostic Processes

A ‘transdiagnostic process’ is the label given to a mechanism which is present across disorders and which is either a risk or maintaining factor f ...

Information Handout


A range of measures of supervision have been developed by the Oxford Clinical Supervision Research Group:

Other measures include:

Cognitive Therapy Competence / Adherence Measures


  • Borden’s model of the supervisory working alliance – Borden (1983)
  • Process model of supervision – Hawkins & Shohet (2012)
  • Systems model of the supervisory relationship – Holloway (1995)



Recommended Reading

  • Bennett-Levy, J., McManus, F., Westling, B. E., & Fennell, M. (2009). Acquiring and refining CBT skills and competencies: which training methods are perceived to be most effective?. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy37(5), 571-583. download archived copy
  • Gordon, P. K. (2012). Ten steps to cognitive behavioural supervision. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist5(4), 71-82.  download archived copy
  • Hawkins, P., Shohet, R. (2012). Supervision in the helping professions. Open University Press
  • Pretorius, W. M. (2006). Cognitive behavioural therapy supervsision: recommended practice. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34, 413-420  download archived copy
  • Roscoe, J. (2021). Conceptualising and managing supervisory drift. the Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 14. download archived copy


  • Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2004). Fundamentals of clinical supervision(3rd ed.). London: Pearson.
  • Milne, D. (2007). An empirical definition of clinical supervision. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(4), 437–447.
  • Milne, D. (2009). Evidence-based clinical supervision: Principles and practice. Malden, MA: BPS Blackwell.