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Transactional Analysis (TA)

Transactional analysis (TA) is a therapeutic approach developed by Eric Berne in the 1950s. It has its roots in psychoanalysis, but maintains a focus on social transactions to determine ‘ego states’ in order to better understand behavior (Berne, 1958, 1964). The International Transactional Analysis Association defines TA as a “theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and personal change.” Read more

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Recommended Reading

  • Horn, E. K., Verheul, R., Thunnissen, M., Delimon, J., Soons, M., Meerman, A. M., … & Emmelkamp, P. M. (2015). Effectiveness of short-term inpatient psychotherapy based on transactional analysis with patients with personality disorders: A matched control study using propensity score.Journal of personality disorders,29(5), 663-683.
  • Ohlsson, T. (2010). Scientific evidence base for transactional analysis in the year 2010 Annex 1–the Big List: References to Transactional Analysis research 1963-2010.International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice,1(1).


  • Berne, E. (1958). Transactional analysis: A new and effective method of group therapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy,12(4), 735–743.
  • Berne, E. (1964). Games people play: The psychology of human relationships. New York: Grove Press.