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Trauma And Dissociation

Trauma and Dissociation is a guide written for clients who have experienced trauma and who are troubled by dissociation. It provides clear information about dissociation, the defence cascade, the window of tolerance, as well as a practical introduction to grounding exercises.


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A psychoeducational guide. Typically containing elements of skills development.


Therapists and clients may both experience dissociation as confusing or frightening. Dissociation doesn’t have to be complicated, though – it can be simplified to the message “my mind keeps taking me away from the present moment”. Dissociation can be separated into everyday and pathological versions. Everyday dissociation, an example of which might be ‘driving on autopilot’, is a consequence of becoming so absorbed that attention is not automatically redirected to other stimuli. Pathological dissociation often occurs in the context of trauma. When experienced during a traumatic experience, dissociation is understood to be a self-preservation reaction, designed to prevent further injury or to prevent the antagonization of a perpetrator. When experienced after a trauma, dissociation might be understood as a form of ‘tuning in’ to traumatic memories (flashbacks) or ‘tuning out’ from the world. 

Trauma and Dissociation is a guide written for clients who have experienced trauma and who are troubled by dissociation or dissociative experiences. Using simple language, the guide is written in three sections. Section 1 describes the dissociation that occurs when people go through traumatic events. Section 2 describes the dissociation that happens to traumatized people at later times. Section 3 guides the reader through specific steps that they can take to manage dissociation.


This is a Psychology Tools guide. Suggested uses include:
  • Client handout – use as a psychoeducation and skills-development resource
  • Discussion point – use to provoke a discussion and explore client beliefs
  • Therapist learning tool – improve your familiarity with a psychological construct
  • Teaching resource – use as a learning tool during training


  • Černis, E., Ehlers, A., & Freeman, D. (2022). Psychological mechanisms connected to dissociation: Generating hypotheses using network analyses. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 148, 165-173.
  • Schauer, M., & Elbert, T.(2010). Dissociation following traumatic stress. Journal of Psychology, 218,109-127.
  • Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: Toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience. Guilford Press.