Theorists have developed multiple methods for categorizing emotions. Ortony & Turner (1990) compared the ‘basic’ emotions proposed by different theories (below). Shaver et al (2001) used data from a similarity rating task to perform a cluster analyis, the results of which form the basis for this worksheet. Shaver et al’s analysis identifies six ‘basic’ emotions, and organizes secondary and tertiary emotions in a hierarchical structure.
Arnold (1960): Anger, aversion, courage, dejection, desire, despair, fear, hate, hope, love, sadness
Ekman, Friesen, Ellsworth (1982): Anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise
Frijda (1986): Desire, happiness, interest, surprise, wonder, sorrow
Gray (1982): Rage and terror, anxiety, joy
Izard (1971): Anger, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, guilt, interest, joy, shame, surprise
James (1884): Fear, grief, love, rage
McDougall (1926): Anger, disgust, elation, fear, subjection, tender-emotion, wonder
Mowrer (1960): Pain, pleasure
Oakley, Johnson-Laird (1987): Anger, disgust, anxiety, happiness, sadness
Panksepp (1982): Expectancy, fear, rage, panic
Plutchik (1980): Acceptance, anger, anticipation, disgust, joy, fear, sadness, surprise
Tomkins (1984): Anger, interest, contempt, disgust, distress, fear, joy, shame, surprise
Watson (1930): Fear, love, rage
Weiner, Graham (1984): Happiness, sadness
- Client handout – use as a psychoeducation resource
- Discussion point – use to provoke a discussion and explore client beliefs
- Therapist learning tool – improve your familiarity with a psychological construct
- Teaching resource – use as a learning tool during training
- Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What’s basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review, 97, 315-331.
- Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1061.