Skip to main content

Longitudinal Formulation 1

Case conceptualizations (formulations) help therapists and clients come to a shared understanding of a problem. This case formulation worksheet is a thorough outline of the factors which might precipitate and prolong a difficulty.


Languages available

  • Chinese (Simplified)
  • Chinese (Traditional)
  • English (GB)
  • English (US)
  • Estonian
  • Italian
  • Lithuanian
  • Malaysian
  • Spanish
  • Turkish

Download or send

Full resource pack (PDF)

Everything you could need: a PDF of the resource, therapist instructions, and description with theoretical context and references. Where appropriate, case examples and annotations are also included.


Worksheet only (PDF)

A copy of the worksheet in PDF format.


Editable version (PPT)

An editable Microsoft PowerPoint version of the resource.


Translation Template

Are you a qualified therapist who would like to help with our translation project?



The Longitudinal Formulation is a longitudinal CBT case formulation which addresses the crucial 5 p factors (presenting, predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, positives). This diagram also includes a cross-sectional component (thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and physical sensations associated with a specific here-and-now situation). This style of formulation can help draw client’s attention to the links between their underlying beliefs (schemas), and their patterns of thinking and behaving in the here-and-now.


This is a case formulation (case conceptualization) diagram. Put simply, case formulation is one method of a client and therapist coming to shared understanding of a difficulty. The formulation contextualizes the difficulty, making its origin and maintenance understandable. Case formulations are best completed collaboratively, with clients positioned as the ‘experts in themselves’.


  • Eells, T. D. (Ed.). (2011). Handbook of psychotherapy case formulation. Guilford Press.
  • Johnstone, L., & Dallos, R. (2013). Formulation in psychology and psychotherapy: Making sense of people’s problems. Routledge.
  • Kuyken, W., Padesky, C. A., & Dudley, R. (2008). Collaborative case conceptualization: Working effectively with clients in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Guilford Press.
  • Persons, J. B. (2012). The case formulation approach to cognitive-behavior therapy. Guilford Press.
  • Tarrier, N., & Johnson, J. (Eds.). (2015). Case formulation in cognitive behaviour therapy: The treatment of challenging and complex cases. Routledge.