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Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)

Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is part of the cognitive-behavioral family of therapies. It was originally developed to treat seriously and chronically suicidal patients and has evolved to treat patients who meet criteria for borderline personality disorder and problems of emotional regulation. DBT combines principles of behavioral psychology, which are used to promote change, with mindfulness principles adapted from Buddhism, which are used to promote acceptance (Linehan, 1993). Read more
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Resource type


Therapy tool

Assertive Communication

Communicating and acting assertively is an interpersonal skill that helps people to maintain healthy relationships, resolve interpersonal conflict, an ...

Information Handout

Assertive Responses

Being able to communicate assertively is an essential skill for developing and maintaining healthy relationships and positive self-esteem. Individuals ...


Emotions Motivate Actions

Many clients find it helpful to recognize the range of actions that are motivated by different emotional states. This worksheet encourages clients to ...

Information Handout

Grounding Techniques

Individuals who have experienced trama often find it difficult to stay within the ‘window of tolerance’. Grounding techniques (which can b ...


Grounding Techniques Menu

Dissociation can be described as a shift of a person’s attention away from the present moment. When working with traumatized clients, this shift oft ...

Information Handout

Mindful Attention (Audio)

Mindful Attention is a technique for becoming aware of one’s thoughts and experiences, and being able to observe these as transient mental events. ...


Psychology Tools For Mindfulness Audio Collection

The Psychology Tools For Mindfulness Audio Collection is the perfect way to introduce your clients to the practice of mindfulness. Developed by a clin ...

Audio Collection

Trauma, Dissociation, And Grounding (Archived)

Trauma, Dissociation, and Grounding is a guide written for clients who have experienced trauma and who are troubled by dissociation. It provides clear ...


What Is Mindfulness?

Mindfulness meditation is a traditional Buddhist practice. It is now commonly taught as a practice helpful in the management of a variety of mental he ...

Information Handout



Treatment guides

  • Modified DBT group therapy manual for working with adolsecents experiencing substance misuse download  archived copy
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy – Youth & coaches workbook  download  archived copy
  • Self-validation skills for use in DBT group skills training download archived copy

Exercises, Worksheets & Workbooks

Information Handouts


Self-Help Programmes

Overcoming distress intolerance (facing your feelings)

Improving your assertiveness

  • What is assertiveness? download
  • How to recognise assertive behaviour download
  • How to think more assertively download
  • How to behave more assertively download
  • Reducing physical tension download
  • How to say “no” assertively download
  • How to deal assertively with criticism download
  • How to deal with disappointment assertively download
  • How to give and receive compliments assertively download
  • Putting it all together download


Recommended Reading

  • Linehan, M. M., & Wilks, C. R. (2015). The course and evolution of dialectical behavior therapy. American journal of psychotherapy69(2), 97-110. download  archived copy
  • Palmer, R. L. (2002). Dialectical behaviour therapy for borderline personality disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 8, 10-16 download
  • Valentine, S. E., Bankoff, S. M., Poulin, R. M., Reidler, E. B., & Pantalone, D. W. (2015). The use of dialectical behavior therapy skills training as stand‐alone treatment: A systematic review of the treatment outcome literature. Journal of Clinical Psychology71(1), 1-20. download archived copy

What Is Dialectical Behavior Therapy?

The Purpose of DBT

Linehan (2015a, 2015b) describes the purpose or functions of DBT as:

  • to enhance an individual’s capability by increasing skillful behavior;
  • to improve and maintain the client’s motivation to change and to engage with treatment;
  • to ensure that generalization of change occurs through treatment;
  • to enhance a therapist’s motivation to deliver effective treatment;
  • to assist the individual in restructuring or changing her environment in ways that support and maintain progress and movement toward goals.

DBT Skills Training

DBT teaches a balance of ‘acceptance skills’ and ‘change skills.’ These include:

  • Mindfulness skills (acceptance) including core mindfulness skills (nonjudgmental observation) and more complex mindfulness practice (wise mind, loving kindness, balancing ‘doing’ and ‘being’).
  • Distress tolerance skills (acceptance) including crisis survival skills, reality acceptance skills, and distress tolerance skills related to addiction.
  • Emotion regulation skills (change) including recognizing emotions, changing emotional responses (including cognitive restructuring), and reducing vulnerability to the emotional mind.
  • Interpersonal effectiveness skills (change) including objectives, relationship, and self-respect effectiveness skills.

Treatment Strategies in DBT

Treatment strategies in DBT include:

  • Dialectical strategies in which attention is paid toward balancing acceptance and change. Techniques include the use of metaphor and paradox, cognitive challenging, and restructuring.
  • Core strategies include problem solving and validation. Problem solving involves analysis and acceptance of a problem followed by an attempt to generate, evaluate, and implement adaptive solutions. Chain analysis is frequently used to analyze problem behaviors in the context of chains of actions, emotions, physiological responses, and cognitions. Skillful (wise) responses are generated and practiced.
  • Communication strategies are closely attended to in DBT. DBT therapists balance reciprocal communication that responds to the client’s agenda with an irreverent communication style intended to promote insight and change.
  • Case management strategies are used in DBT to guide the therapist’s interactions, including regular supervision and consultation on the grounds that complex clients should not be treated/‘held’ by a sole clinician.


  • Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive–behavioral therapy of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Linehan, M. M. (2015a). DBT skills training handouts and worksheets(2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Linehan, M. M. (2015b). DBT skills training manual(2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.