Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is one of the ‘third wave’ cognitive and behavioral therapies. It incorporates acceptance and mindfulness strategies alongside change strategies, in recognition that change is not always possible or desirable. ACT is theoretically derived from relational frame theory (RFT) which is a behavior analytic account of the functional properties of human language. The ACT approach proposes that suffering and dysfunction arise from attempts to control or eliminate unwanted experiences. Attempts to control or avoid can lead to the paradoxical effect of greater suffering and a perception of loss of control of the focus for elimination. The aim of ACT is to increase psychological flexibility, which is defined as “contacting the present moment fully as a conscious human being, and based on what the situation affords, changing or persisting in behavior in the service of chosen values” (Hayes, Luoma, Bond, Masuda, & Lillis, 2006). Read more
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A Guide To Emotions (Psychology Tools For Living Well)
Cognitive behavioral therapy can help your clients to live happier and more fulfilling lives. Psychology Tools for Living Well is a self-help course ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/a-guide-to-emotions-psychology-tools-for-living-well
Books & Chapters
Being With Difficulty (Audio)
Being With Difficulty is a mindfulness exercise which gently brings present-moment awareness to bear upon thoughts and feelings that are more difficul ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/being-with-difficulty-audio
Body Scan (Audio)
The Body Scan is a mindfulness exercise encouraging present-moment awareness, with the sensations of the body being used as an anchor for mindful atte ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/body-scan-audio
Developing Psychological Flexibility
Developing Psychological Flexibility is a client information handout which can be used to familiarize clients with the ACT model. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/developing-psychological-flexibility
How Does Emotion Affect Your Life?
By encouraging your clients to reflect upon the role of emotions in their life you can help them to discuss current difficulties. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-does-emotion-affect-your-life
Mindful Attention (Audio)
Mindful Attention is a technique for becoming aware of one’s thoughts and experiences, and being able to observe these as transient mental events. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mindful-attention-audio
Mindfulness In Everyday Life (Audio)
Mindfulness In Everyday Life is a short mindfulness exercise which guides clients how to bring present-moment awareness into everyday life. This audio ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mindfulness-in-everyday-life-audio
Mindfulness Of Breath (Long Version) (Audio)
Mindfulness Of Breath (Long version) is a mindfulness exercise encouraging present-moment awareness, using the breath as an anchor for the attention. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mindfulness-of-breath-long-version-audio
Mindfulness Of Breath (Short Version) (Audio)
Mindfulness Of Breath (Short version) is a mindfulness exercise encouraging present-moment awareness, using the breath as an anchor for the attention. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mindfulness-of-breath-short-version-audio
Mindfulness Of Sounds And Thoughts (Audio)
Mindfulness Of Sounds And Thoughts is a mindfulness practice exercise that encourages relating to thoughts as ‘just thoughts’ that come and go in ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mindfulness-of-sounds-and-thoughts-audio
Raisin Exercise (Audio)
The Raisin Exercise is a short mindfulness exercise encouraging present-moment awareness of the senses, connecting with taste, touch and smell while y ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/raisin-exercise-audio
Thinking Versus Sensing (Audio)
Thinking Versus Sensing is a short mindfulness exercise to demonstrate the difference between thinking about our experience and sensing it directly. E ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thinking-versus-sensing-audio
Meaningful activity is value-driven. This ACT-informed worksheet explores the key domains of values and encourages clients to reflect upon what is imp ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/values
What Is Mindfulness?
Mindfulness meditation is a traditional Buddhist practice. It is now commonly taught as a practice helpful in the management of a variety of mental he ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/what-is-mindfulness
Case Conceptualization / Case Formulation
- ACT case formulation sheet | David Gillanders download archived copy
- Outline of ACT assessment / case formulation process download archived copy
- ACT case formulation template adapted for clients with visible differences download archived copy
- The brief case conceptualization worksheet download archived copy
- Person-in-the-hole metahphor download
- Passengers-on-the-bus metaphor download
- Sailing boat metaphor download from David Gillanders page of contextualscience.org
- ACT in the treatment of chronic pain | JoAnn Dahl & Thomas Lundgren download archived copy
- ACT for chronic pain | Lance McCracken download archived copy
- ACT for diabetes self-management | Gregg, Hayes & Callaghan download archive.org
- ACT for OCD | Michael Twohig download archived copy
- Mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy for social anxiety disorder download archived copy
- ACT handouts | Russ Harris download archived copy
Exercises, Worksheets & Workbooks
- Worksheets from the Happiness Trap including Values, Defusion, and Experiential Avoidance exercises download
- 6 ACT conversations is a six-session e-learning program from RMIT University Link to 6 ACT conversations
- Pre-empting your mind | Russ Harris download archived copy
- Session with IMPACT | Russ Harris (2014) download archived copy
- Advanced ACT workshop | Russ Harris (2017) download archived copy
- Animation: Demons on the Boat metaphor – which outlines how an alternative, more accepting stance towards difficult thoughts, emotions or sensations can facilitate action towards values YouTube
- Animation: Unwelcome Party Guest metaphor – similar to the Demons on the Boat metaphor, but highlights the cost (in terms of lack valued action) of avoidance of negative or unwanted emotions YouTube
- Cullen, C. (2008). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT): A third-wave behaviour therapy. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36(6), 667 download
- Harris, R. (2006). Embracing your demons: An overview of acceptance and commitment therapy. Psychotherapy in Australia, 12(4), 2-8 download
- Hayes, S. C., Pistorello, J., & Levin, M. E. (2012). Acceptance and commitment therapy as a unified model of behavior change. The Counseling Psychologist, 40(7), 976-1002 download
- Larmar, S., Wiatrowski, S., & Lewis-Driver, S. (2014). Acceptance & Commitment Therapy: An Overview of Techniques and Applications. Journal of Service Science and Management, 7(3), 216 download
What Is Acceptance And Commitment Therapy?
Luoma, Hayes, and Walser (2007) describe some of the assumptions made by the ACT approach:
- Acceptance is the active and aware embrace of private events that are occasioned by our history, without unnecessary attempts to change their frequency or form, especially when doing so would cause psychological harm.
- Defusion is theprocess of creating non-literal contexts in which language can be seen as an active, ongoing, and relational process that is historical in nature and present in the current context.
- Self-as-context is a continuous and secure ‘I’ from which events are experienced, but which is also distinct from those events.
- Contact with the present moment is an ongoing, nonjudgmental contact with psychological and environmental events as they occur.
- Values are verbally constructed, global, desired, and chosen life directions.Values are what truly matter to us and are distinct from goals in that they cannot be ‘achieved’ butrather ‘moved toward or away from.’
- Committed action is the step-by-step process of acting to create a whole life, one of integrity, which is true to one’s deepest wishes and longings.
- Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(1), 1–25.
- Luoma, J. B., Hayes, S. C., & Walser, R. D. (2007). Learning ACT: An acceptance & commitment therapy skills-training manual for therapists. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.