Pain (Acute Pain And Chronic Pain)
Activity Diary (Hourly Time Intervals)
Activity Diary (No Time Intervals)
Audio Collection: Psychology Tools For Mindfulness
Audio Collection: Psychology Tools For Relaxation
Avoidance Hierarchy (Archived)
Behavioral Experiment (Portrait Format)
Being With Difficulty (Audio)
Body Scan (Audio)
Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Fear Of Body Sensations
Combined Relaxation Exercise (Audio)
Developing Psychological Flexibility
Emotions Motivate Actions
Evaluating Unhelpful Automatic Thoughts
Exercise For Mental Health
Health Anxiety Thought Record
Identifying The Meaning Of Body Sensations
Jumping To Conclusions
Mindful Attention (Audio)
Mindfulness In Everyday Life (Audio)
Mindfulness Of Breath (Long Version) (Audio)
Mindfulness Of Breath (Short Version) (Audio)
Mindfulness Of Sounds And Thoughts (Audio)
Pacing For Pain And Fatigue
Pain Activity Diary
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Progressive Muscle Relaxation (Archived)
Progressive Muscle Relaxation (Audio)
Raisin Exercise (Audio)
Relaxed Breathing Exercise 1 (Audio)
Relaxed Breathing Exercise 2 (Audio)
Relaxed Breathing Exercise 3 (Audio)
Relaxed Breathing Exercise 4 (Audio)
Thinking Versus Sensing (Audio)
Unhelpful Thinking Styles
What Does Exercise Do For the Mind And Body?
- Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire – Revised (CPAQ-R) | McCracken, Vowles, Eccleston | 2004
- Scale download archived copy
- McCraken, L. M., Vowles, K. E. & Eccleston, C. (2004). Acceptance of chronic pain: component analysis and a revised assessment method. Pain, 107, 159-166.
- Illness Perception Questionnaire – Revised (IPQ-R) | Weinman, Petrie, Moss-Morris, Horne | 2002
- Scale download archived copy
- Moss-Morris, R., Weinman, J., Petrie, K., Horne, R., Cameron, L., & Buick, D. (2002). The revised illness perception questionnaire (IPQ-R). Psychology and health, 17(1), 1-16.
- Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) | Sullivan | 1995
- Manual + scale download archived copy
- Sullivan, M. J., Bishop, S. R., & Pivik, J. (1995). The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychological Assessment, 7(4), 524.
- Guidelines for pain management programmes for adults | British Pain Society | 2013 download archived copy
- Life with chronic pain: an acceptance-based approach | Kevin Vowles, Sohn Sorrell | 2007 download archived copy
- Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain – therapist manual download archived copy
- ACT for chronic pain | Lance McCracken | 2015 download archived copy
- The Pain Toolkit – a helpful toolkit for people who live with persistent pain
- Pacing instructions with worked examples
- Pacing instructions archived copy
- Pain management diary download
- Pain management: application of cognitive behavioral methods | Michael Nicholas download archived copy
- Lecture on fear avoidance in chronic pain | Johan Vlayen | 2008 archived copy
- A multidisciplinary facial pain service | Sarah Baker download archived copy
- Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Chronic Pain | Lance McCracken | 2015 download
- Acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of chronic pain – Dahl & Lundgren download archived copy
- McCracken, L. M., & Vowles, K. E. (2014). Acceptance and commitment therapy and mindfulness for chronic pain: model, process, and progress. American Psychologist, 69(2), 178 download
What Is Pain?
Signs and Symptoms of Acute and Chronic Pain
Pain is a multisensory experience with sensory and affective components. Sensory components of pain describe where the pain is, what it feels like, and how strong it is. Affective components of pain describe how the pain makes us feel. Therapists working with pain patients also find it helpful to assess and work with the behavioral, cognitive, functional, and social effects of pain.
Psychological Models and Theory of Acute and Chronic Pain
Fear-Avoidance Model of Chronic Pain
The fear-avoidance model of chronic pain (Vlaeyen & Linton, 2000) describes a trajectory followed by individuals experiencing acute pain who may become trapped in a vicious cycle of chronic disability and suffering. As a cognitive model it proposes that the appraisals pain patients form concerning their pain can lead to sequences that end in avoidance, deconditioning, and further pain and suffering. The fear-avoidance model of chronic pain is empirically well-supported but it has been argued that the next generation of the model needs to add motivational components including goals and self-regulatory processes (Crombez et al, 2012).
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Model of Chronic Pain
ACT is a transdiagnostic approach to human difficulties that is popular among clinicians working with pain.
“The basic premise of ACT as applied to chronic pain is that while pain hurts, it is the struggle with pain that causes suffering … continuing attempts to control pain may be maladaptive, especially if they cause unwanted side effects or prevent involvement in valued activities, such as work, family, or community involvement” (Dahl & Lundgren, 2015).
- Crombez, G., Eccleston, C., Van Damme, S., Vlaeyen, J. W., & Karoly, P. (2012). Fear-avoidance model of chronic pain: The next generation. The Clinical Journal of Pain, 28(6), 475–483.
- Dahl, J., & Lundgren, T. (2015). Acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of chronic pain. Retrieved from: https://www.div12.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/ACT-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain.pdf
- Vlaeyen, J. W. S., & Linton, S. J. (2000). Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: A state of the art. Pain, 85(3), 317–332.