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Psychoeducation and Information-Giving

Therapeutic techniques such as Socratic questioning aim to help patients to become cognizant of, and to synthesize, information that they already have. However, many patients experience psychological distress because they lack critical information: the essential component of many cognitive models concerns patient’s misappraisals or misperceptions of a stimulus. In cases where patients are lacking critical information then psychoeducation (giving information) is a hugely important psychological intervention. Psychoeducation can include:
  • information given verbally in a therapy session;
  • written material in the form of Psychology Tools information handouts, guides, and chapters;
  • exercises or homework tasks where patients are encouraged to discover information for themselves.
Psychoeducation and Information-Giving
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"Should" Statements

“Should” statements (sometimes referred to as ‘musturbation’, ‘necessitous thinking’, ‘self-commands’, and ‘injunctions’) are char ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/should-statements

A Guide To Emotions (Psychology Tools For Living Well)

Cognitive behavioral therapy can help your clients to live happier and more fulfilling lives. Psychology Tools for Living Well is a self-help course ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/a-guide-to-emotions-psychology-tools-for-living-well

Abandonment

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/abandonment

All-Or-Nothing Thinking

All-or-nothing thinking (often also referred to as ‘black and white thinking’, ‘dichotomous thinking’, ‘absolutist thinking’, or ‘binary ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/all-or-nothing-thinking

Approval-/Admiration-Seeking

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/approval-admiration-seeking

Arbitrary Inference

Arbitrary inference is one of the earliest and broadest cognitive disotortions described in CBT. Beck defines it as "the process of forming an interpr ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/arbitrary-inference

Assertive Communication

Communicating and acting assertively is an interpersonal skill that helps people to maintain healthy relationships, resolve interpersonal conflict, an ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/assertive-communication

Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) automatically regulates the function of body systems outside of voluntary control. The Autonomic Nervous System han ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/autonomic-nervous-system

Balance

Our sense of balance is the result of a complex system which receives visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive inputs. This Balance client information h ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/balance

Barriers Abusers Overcome In Order To Abuse

Individuals who have experienced abuse often focus on their own actions (or inactions) and blame themselves for their own abuse. This client informati ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/barriers-abusers-overcome-in-order-to-abuse

Before I Blame Myself And Feel Guilty

Guilt is a common post-traumatic reaction and is often the result of cognitive bias. This CBT worksheet explores common cognitive biases that have bee ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/before-i-blame-myself-and-feel-guilty

Behaviors In Panic (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses beha ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/behaviors-in-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic

Body Sensations In Panic (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses body ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/body-sensations-in-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic

Breathing To Calm The Body Sensations Of Panic (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses the ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/breathing-to-calm-the-body-sensations-of-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic

Catastrophizing

The Catastrophizing information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series. It is designed to help clients and therapists to work more eff ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/catastrophizing

Challenging Your Negative Thinking (Archived)

NOTE: An improved version of this resource is available here: Evaluating Unhelpful Automatic Thoughts. Older versions of a resource may be archived in ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/challenging-your-negative-thinking

Checking Certainty And Doubt

Psychologists have discovered interesting relationships between Checking, Certainty, And Doubt. This information handout contains an exercise helpful ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/checking-certainty-and-doubt

Checklist For Better Sleep

Some sleep experts recommend that sleep hygiene issues be attended to as one component of treatment for poor sleep. This sleep hygiene worksheet is in ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/checklist-for-better-sleep

Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is a process by which stimuli become associated with responses. This information handout describes key principles of Classical ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/classical-conditioning

Coercive Methods For Enforcing Compliance

Individuals who have experienced abuse often focus on their own actions (or inactions) and blame themselves for their own abuse. This client informati ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/coercive-methods-for-enforcing-compliance

Cognitive Distortions – Unhelpful Thinking Styles (Common)

Cognitive distortions (or ‘unhelpful thinking styles’) are ways that our thoughts become biased. Different cognitive biases are associated with di ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-distortions-unhelpful-thinking-styles-common

Cognitive Distortions – Unhelpful Thinking Styles (Extended)

Cognitive distortions (or ‘unhelpful thinking styles’) are ways that our thoughts become biased. Different cognitive biases are associated with di ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-distortions-unhelpful-thinking-styles-extended

Coping Styles And Responses (Schema Therapy)

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/coping-styles-and-responses-schema-therapy

Core Belief Magnet Metaphor

Core beliefs (schemas) are self-sustaining. They act to 'attract' confirmatory evidence and 'repel' (or distort) disconfirmatory evidence. This inform ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/core-belief-magnet-metaphor

Critical Care And PTSD

The Critical Care And PTSD information handout is designed to help clients to learn about the properties of critical care that can increase the likeli ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/critical-care-and-ptsd

Critical Illness Intensive Care And Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

This is a free guide designed for people who have spent time in an intensive care unit and are experiencing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/critical-illness-intensive-care-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd

Defectiveness

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/defectiveness

Demanding Standards – Living Well With Your Personal Rules

Demanding Standards – Living Well With Your Personal Rules is a guide written for clients who have high or perfectionistic standards which cause th ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/demanding-standards-living-well-with-your-personal-rules

Dependence/Incompetence

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/dependence-incompetence

Discounting In Perfectionism – The Ratchet Effect

When individuals with perfectionism successfully meet their demanding standards, these accomplishments are often discounted as “easy to do,” “no ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/discounting-in-perfectionism-the-ratchet-effect

Disqualifying Others

This Disqualifying Others information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more eff ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/disqualifying-others

Disqualifying The Positive

This Disqualifying the Positive information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists work more ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/disqualifying-the-positive

Eating And Your Energy Levels

The Eating and Your Energy Levels handout provides an overview of the relationship between food intake and energy levels. It graphically illustrates h ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/eating-and-your-energy-levels

Embracing Uncertainty

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) was first described in individuals suffering from Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Many behaviors associated with G ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/embracing-uncertainty

Emotional Deprivation

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotional-deprivation

Emotional Inhibition

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotional-inhibition

Emotional Reasoning

The Emotional Reasoning information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effec ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotional-reasoning

Emotions

Many people find it hard to label their emotional states or reactions. This information handout provides a list of emotions, categorizing them as basi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotions

Emotions In Panic (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses the ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotions-in-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic

Emotions Motivate Actions

Many clients find it helpful to recognize the range of actions that are motivated by different emotional states. This worksheet encourages clients to ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotions-motivate-actions

Enmeshment

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/enmeshment

Evaluating Unhelpful Automatic Thoughts

The Evaluating Unhelpful Automatic Thoughts guide is written for clients who struggle with negative automatic thoughts. It provides a comprehensive in ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/evaluating-unhelpful-automatic-thoughts

Everyday 'Unusual' Experiences

Everyone has powerful experiences from time to time, and there are many very ordinary reasons why people have experiences that are considered ‘unusu ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/everyday-unusual-experiences

Examining Your Negative Thoughts

Cognitive restructuring is an evidence-based intervention that involves identifying, evaluating, and modifying maladaptive cognitions, including negat ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/examining-your-negative-thoughts

Exercise For Mental Health

Exercise is an evidence-based treatment for depression and anxiety and research suggests that, in the treatment of depression, exercise interventions ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/exercise-for-mental-health

Exposures For Fear Of Appearing Anxious

Concerns about appearing anxious in front of others plays a central role in social anxiety. Exposure is an effective treatment for tackling these fear ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/exposures-for-fear-of-appearing-anxious

Externalizing

The Externalizing information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effectively ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/externalizing

Facing Your Fears And Phobias

The Facing Your Fears And Phobias guide is written for clients who struggle with fears or phobias. It provides comprehensive information about what fe ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/facing-your-fears-and-phobias

Fact Or Opinion

One cognitive error which commonly results in distress is to act on our opinions as though they were facts. This CBT exercise helps clients to practic ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/fact-or-opinion

Fair Fighting Rules For Resolving Conflict

Fair fighting is a collection of rules that individuals can use to manage conflict effectively, so that it is ‘fair’ and works towards a resolutio ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/fair-fighting-rules-for-resolving-conflict

Fight or Flight (CYP)

The Fight Or Flight (CYP) information handout has been specifically designed for younger children and includes carefully simplified language. The prof ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/fight-or-flight-cyp

Fight Or Flight Response

The fight or flight response is an automatic physiological reaction to an event that is perceived as stressful or frightening. The perception of threa ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/fight-or-flight-response

Fortune Telling

The Fortune Telling information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effective ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/fortune-telling

Grounding Techniques

Individuals who have experienced trama often find it difficult to stay within the 'window of tolerance'. Grounding techniques (which can be sensory/pe ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/grounding-techniques

Guidelines For Better Sleep

Some sleep experts recommend that sleep hygiene issues be attended to as one component of treatment for poor sleep. This sleep hygiene information wor ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/guidelines-for-better-sleep

Habituation

The Habituation information sheets are designed to help clinicians to explain the concept of habituation and its role in exposure therapy. The handout ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/habituation

Health Anxiety Formulation

Health anxiety is characterized by a preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness, and a high level of anxiety about health. People with h ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/health-anxiety-formulation

Hindsight Bias

Hindsight bias describes the tendency that people have – once an outcome is known – to believe that they predicted (or could have predicted) an ou ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/hindsight-bias

Hindsight Bias (Archived)

Survivors of loss or trauma often think "If only …". Hindsight Bias is a cognitive bias / cognitive illusion which makes events seem more predictabl ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/hindsight-bias-archived

How Breathing Affects Feelings

Normal, anxious, and exercise breathing have significant effects upon our physiology and our emotions. This information handout explains the physiolog ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-breathing-affects-feelings

How Is Panic Disorder Different From A Panic Attack? (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter disambiguates ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-is-panic-disorder-different-from-a-panic-attack-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic

How Much Do You Know About Panic? (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter includes a qui ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-much-do-you-know-about-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic

How Trauma Can Affect You (CYP)

Trauma can result in a wide variety of symptoms, experiences, and behaviors. As well as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), prevalence rates of oth ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-trauma-can-affect-you-cyp

How We Hear Sounds

Clients with tinnitus often have a very medicalized understanding of their condition. Understanding the processing steps involved in normal hearing ca ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-we-hear-sounds

How Your Body Responds To Stress

Many clients identify with the concept of ‘stress’ more readily than ‘threat’ and the The How Your Body Responds To Stress information handou ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-your-body-responds-to-stress

How Your Past Affects Your Present (CBT)

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) describes three levels of cognition – automatic thoughts, assumptions, and core beliefs – which are influenced ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-your-past-affects-your-present-cbt

How Your Past Affects Your Present (Schema Therapy)

Schema therapy posits that many longstanding psychological difficulties stem from unmet core emotional needs, the early maladaptive schemas (EMS) they ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-your-past-affects-your-present-schema-therapy

Intolerance Of Uncertainty

Uncertainty is a normal part of life – we can never be 100% sure about what will happen next. Many people feel good about uncertainty and live lives ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/intolerance-of-uncertainty

Introduction To CBT (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter includes a bri ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/introduction-to-cbt-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic

Intrusive Thoughts Images And Impulses

Intrusive Thoughts, Images, And Impulses that are experienced as distressing are a feature of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). They are also a com ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/intrusive-thoughts-images-and-impulses

Jumping To Conclusions

The Jumping to Conclusions information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more ef ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/jumping-to-conclusions

Labeling

Identifying negative automatic thoughts and reappraising unhelpful thinking is a core element of cognitive therapy. Teaching clients to recognize the ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/labeling

Magnification And Minimization

The Magnification And Minimization information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/magnification-and-minimization

Managing Social Anxiety (Third Edition): Therapist Guide

Managing Social Anxiety – A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Approach comes in two volumes. This page is for the Therapist Guide. Click on the following ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/managing-social-anxiety-therapist-guide

Mastery Of Your Anxiety And Worry (Second Edition): Workbook

Mastery Of Your Anxiety And Worry comes in two volumes. This page is for the Workbook. Click on the following link to access the accompanying Therapis ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mastery-of-your-anxiety-and-worry-workbook

Maximizing The Effectiveness Of Exposure Therapy

Despite its position as the leading treatment technique for anxiety disorders, not all clients respond to exposure therapy and some individuals relaps ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/maximizing-the-effectiveness-of-exposure-therapy

Mental Filter

The Mental Filter information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effectively ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mental-filter

Mind Reading

The Mind Reading information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effectively ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mind-reading

Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning / instrumental learning is a mechanism by which behaviors can be strengthened or weakened over time. This information handout des ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/operant-conditioning

Overcoming Insomnia (Second Edition): Therapist Guide

Overcoming Insomnia comes in two volumes. This page is for the Therapist Guide. Click on the following link to access the Client Workbook. It is ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/overcoming-insomnia-therapist-guide

Overcoming Your Eating Disorder: Workbook

Overcoming Eating Disorders comes in two volumes. This page is for the Client Workbook. Click on the following link to access the accompanying Therapi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/overcoming-your-eating-disorder-workbook

Overgeneralization

The Overgeneralization information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effect ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/overgeneralization

Overview Of CBT

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for a wide variety of mental and physical health conditions. This information handout des ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/overview-of-cbt

Panic Formulation

The aim of a formulation is to help the client and therapist to come to a shared understanding of what a client is experiencing. The Panic Formulation ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/panic-formulation

Performance And The Yerkes-Dodson Law

The Yerkes-Dodson Law suggests that performance increases with mental arousal (stress) but only up to a point: when an individuals’ level of stress ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/performance-and-the-yerkes-dodson-law

Permissive Thinking

The Permissive Thinking information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effec ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/permissive-thinking

Personalizing

The Personalizing information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effectively ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/personalizing

Process Model Of Supervision

Hawkins & Shohet proposed a helpful structure for reflecting upon the focus of a supervision session. This information sheet includes example ques ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/process-model-of-supervision

Progress In Therapy

The Progress In Therapy information handout graphically illustrates metaphors for trajectories of progress (or how progress might be subjectively expe ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/progress-in-therapy

Prompts For Challenging Negative Thinking (Archived)

NOTE: An improved version of this resource is available here: Prompts For Challenging Negative Thinking. Older versions of a resource may be arch ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/prompts-for-challenging-negative-thinking-archived

Prompts For Challenging Your Negative Thinking

Cognitive restructuring is an evidence-based intervention that involves identifying, evaluating, and modifying maladaptive cognitions, including negat ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/prompts-for-challenging-your-negative-thinking

Properties Of Trauma Memories

Important properties of trauma memories include involuntary recall, 'nowness', vividness, and immutability. People who have experienced trauma report ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/properties-of-trauma-memories

Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic

This helpful workbook will teach you everything you need to know about panic. Drawing upon the evidence base, Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic  ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic

PTSD And Memory

Alterations in the way the brain processes 'normal' vs. 'traumatic' material are thought to be responsible for the intrusive nature of memories in con ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/ptsd-and-memory

PTSD Film Projection Metaphor

Treatment for trauma often involves exposure to traumatic thoughts and memories, and many clients are understandably reluctant to attempt this. The PT ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/ptsd-film-projection-metaphor

PTSD Linen Cupboard Metaphor

Treatment for trauma often involves exposure to traumatic thoughts and memories, and many clients are understandably reluctant to attempt this. The PT ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/ptsd-linen-cupboard-metaphor

Putting It All Together (Psychology Tools For Living Well)

Cognitive behavioral therapy can help your clients to live happier and more fulfilling lives. Psychology Tools for Living Well is a self-help course ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/putting-it-all-together-psychology-tools-for-living-well

Reactions To Trauma

Traumatic events are shocking and it is normal to feel overwhelmed. Not everybody reacts in the same way though and there is no ‘right’ way to res ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/reactions-to-trauma

Recognizing Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia is characterized by marked and excessive fear of situations such as open or public spaces where escape or help might not be available, and ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/recognizing-agoraphobia

Recognizing Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by the restriction of energy intake, leading to a severely low weight in the context of an individual’s age, heigh ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/recognizing-anorexia-nervosa

Links to external resources

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