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Depression

Depression is characterized by an extended period of low mood, anhedonia, and reduction in activity. Dysthymia (persistent depressive disorder) is characterized by a depressed mood that occurs for most of the day, more days than not, and has been present for at least two years. Depression is a heterogeneous condition with many different triggers, presentations, and maintaining factors. Cognitive behavioral therapies (including acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), compassion focused therapy (CFT), and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)) are effective evidence-based treatment for depression, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an effective intervention for preventing the recurrence of depression. Read more

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100 of 113 resources

Cognitive Distortions – Unhelpful Thinking Styles (Extended)

Cognitive distortions (or ‘unhelpful thinking styles’) are ways that our thoughts become biased. Different cognitive biases are associated with di ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-distortions-unhelpful-thinking-styles-extended

Cognitive Distortions – Unhelpful Thinking Styles (Common)

Cognitive distortions (or ‘unhelpful thinking styles’) are ways that our thoughts become biased. Different cognitive biases are associated with di ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-distortions-unhelpful-thinking-styles-common

Assertive Communication

Communicating and acting assertively is an interpersonal skill that helps people to maintain healthy relationships, resolve interpersonal conflict, an ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/assertive-communication

Abandonment

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/abandonment

Failure To Achieve

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/failure-to-achieve

Audio Collection: Psychology Tools For Developing Self-Compassion

Psychology Tools For Developing Self-Compassion is an audio collection which guides clients through an empirically-supported programme of compassionat ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/psychology-tools-for-developing-self-compassion-audio-collection

Values: Connecting To What Matters

Values: Connecting To What Matters is a practical self-help guide which introduces the reader to a cornerstone of acceptance and commitment therapy (A ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/values-connecting-to-what-matters-full-guide

Therapy Blueprint (Universal)

A therapy blueprint is CBT tool which summarizes the work a therapist and patient have completed together. It represents the past (the problems, what ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/therapy-blueprint-universal

Embracing Uncertainty

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) was first described in individuals suffering from Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Many behaviors associated with G ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/embracing-uncertainty

Activity Menu

Helping clients to choose which activities to target during behavioral activation (BA) can be accomplished in a variety of ways: activity monitoring c ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/activity-menu

Enmeshment

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/enmeshment

Assertive Responses

Being able to communicate assertively is an essential skill for developing and maintaining healthy relationships and positive self-esteem. Individuals ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/assertive-responses

Intolerance Of Uncertainty

Uncertainty is a normal part of life – we can never be 100% sure about what will happen next. Many people feel good about uncertainty and live lives ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/intolerance-of-uncertainty

Entitlement

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/entitlement

Thought Record (Evidence For And Against)

CBT Thought Records exist in multiple variants, depending on the needs and abilities of the client. This Thought Record (Evidence For And Against) is ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thought-record-evidence-for-and-against

Emotional Deprivation

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotional-deprivation

Unhelpful Thinking Styles (Archived)

NOTE: Two improved versions of this resource are available here: Cognitive Distortions – Unhelpful Thinking Styles (Common) and Cognitive Disto ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/unhelpful-thinking-styles-archived

Approval-/Admiration-Seeking

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/approval-admiration-seeking

Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (Second Edition): Client Workbook

The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (Second Edition) comes in two volumes. This page is for the Client Workbook. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/unified-protocol-for-transdiagnostic-treatment-of-emotional-disorders-second-edition-client-workbook

Behavioral Experiment

Behavioral experiments are planned experiential activities to test the validity of a belief. They are one of the most powerful techniques available to ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/behavioral-experiment

Emotional Inhibition

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotional-inhibition

Defectiveness

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/defectiveness

Using Behavioral Activation To Overcome Depression

Using Behavioral Activation To Overcome Depression is a guide written for clients who are currently depressed. It provides clear information about dep ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/using-behavioral-activation-to-overcome-depression

Behavioral Experiment (Portrait Format)

Behavioral experiments allow individuals to test the validity of their beliefs and assumptions. They are a core experiential technique for therapeutic ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/behavioral-experiment-portrait-format

Dependence / Incompetence

Schema therapy posits that psychological difficulties stem from early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and clients’ characteristic responses to them, refer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/dependence-incompetence

Emotions Motivate Actions

Many clients find it helpful to recognize the range of actions that are motivated by different emotional states. This worksheet encourages clients to ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotions-motivate-actions

Behavioral Activation Activity Diary

Behavioral activation (BA) is an effective treatment for depression. Different behavioral activation protocols include a variety of treatment componen ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/behavioral-activation-activity-diary

Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (Second Edition): Therapist Guide

The Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (Second Edition) comes in two volumes. This page is for the Therapist Guide. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/unified-protocol-for-transdiagnostic-treatment-of-emotional-disorders-second-edition-therapist-guide

"Should" Statements

“Should” statements (sometimes referred to as ‘musturbation’, ‘necessitous thinking’, ‘self-commands’, and ‘injunctions’) are char ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/should-statements

Audio Collection: Psychology Tools For Mindfulness

The Psychology Tools For Mindfulness Audio Collection is the perfect way to introduce your clients to the practice of mindfulness. Developed by a clin ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/psychology-tools-for-mindfulness-audio-collection

Self-Blame

The Self-Blame information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effectively wi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/self-blame

Compassionate Thought Challenging Record

Thought challenging records are commonly used in CBT to help people to evaluate their negative automatic thoughts for accuracy and bias. This Compassi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/compassionate-thought-challenging-record

Changing Avoidance (Behavioral Activation)

Behavioral activation (BA) is a structured psychotherapeutic approach effective for a range of disorders, including depression (Ekers et al., 2014), a ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/changing-avoidance-behavioral-activation

Evaluating Unhelpful Automatic Thoughts

The Evaluating Unhelpful Automatic Thoughts guide is written for clients who struggle with negative automatic thoughts. It provides a comprehensive in ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/evaluating-unhelpful-automatic-thoughts

CBT Appraisal Model

The CBT Appraisal Model worksheet is a transdiagnostic formulation tool. The centrality of appraisals underpins all of the disorder-specific cognitive ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cbt-appraisal-model

Overcoming Depression (Second Edition): Workbook

Overcoming Depression – A Cognitive Therapy Approach comes in two volumes. This page is for the Client Workbook. Click on the following link to acce ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/overcoming-depression-workbook

Activity Planning

Research suggests that an activity is more likely to be completed if it is planned and scheduled in advance. The Activity Planning worksheet can be us ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/activity-planning

What Is Rumination?

Rumination and repetitive thought is a transdiagnostic maintenance process underpinning a range of difficulties. This information sheet explores the c ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/what-is-rumination

Behavioral Activation Activity Planning Diary

Behavioral activation (BA) is an effective treatment for depression. Different behavioral activation protocols include a variety of treatment componen ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/behavioral-activation-activity-planning-diary

Activity Diary (Hourly Time Intervals)

Activity diaries can be used for activity monitoring during an assessment phase of therapy, symptom monitoring during therapy, correlating activity wi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/activity-diary-hourly-time-intervals

Core Belief Magnet Metaphor

Core beliefs (schemas) are self-sustaining. They act to 'attract' confirmatory evidence and 'repel' (or distort) disconfirmatory evidence. This inform ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/core-belief-magnet-metaphor

ABC Model

ABC is an acronym for Antecedents, Behavior, Consequences. It is used as a tool for the assessment and formulation of problem behaviors and is useful ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/abc-model

Thought-Action Fusion

The Thought-Action Fusion information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more eff ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thought-action-fusion

All-Or-Nothing Thinking

All-or-nothing thinking (often also referred to as ‘black and white thinking’, ‘dichotomous thinking’, ‘absolutist thinking’, or ‘binary ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/all-or-nothing-thinking

Understanding Depression

Our ‘Understanding…’ series is a collection of psychoeducation guides for common mental health conditions. Friendly and explanatory, they are co ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/understanding-depression

What Keeps Depression Going?

The “What Keeps It Going?” series is a set of one-page diagrams explaining how common mental health conditions are maintained. Friendly and concis ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/what-keeps-depression-going

Social Comparison

The Social Comparison information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effecti ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/social-comparison

Thought Record (Considered Response)

Thought records exist in multiple variants, depending on the needs and abilities of the client. This Thought Record (Considered Response) is a cogniti ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thought-record-considered-response

Negative Thoughts - Self-Monitoring Record

Developing self-monitoring skills teaches clients to systematically observe and record specific targets such as their own thoughts, body feelings, emo ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/negative-thoughts-self-monitoring-record

Thought Record – Courtroom Trial

Thought records are commonly used in CBT to help people to evaluate their negative automatic thoughts for accuracy and bias. The Thought Record – Co ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thought-record-courtroom-trial

Catching Your Thoughts (CYP)

Before thoughts can be examined or challenged they must be ‘caught’ – they must be noticed and distinguished from events and feelings. The Catch ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/catching-your-thoughts-cyp

Boundaries - Self-Monitoring Record

Developing self-monitoring skills teaches clients to systematically observe and record specific targets such as their own thoughts, body feelings, emo ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/boundaries-self-monitoring-record

Overcoming Depression (Second Edition): Therapist Guide

Overcoming Depression – A Cognitive Therapy Approach comes in two volumes. This page is for the Therapist Guide. Click on the following link to acce ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/overcoming-depression-therapist-guide

Thoughts And Depression

Depression is associated with cognitive biases, one of which is a failure to notice positive information. This information handout presents this conce ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/thoughts-and-depression

Self Critical Thought Challenging Record

Disputing thoughts is a critical skill in cognitive therapy. The Self-Critical Thought Challenging Record helps clients to identify and challenge thei ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/self-critical-thought-challenging-record

Developing Psychological Flexibility

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) proposes that suffering is associated with psychological inflexibility. ACT suggests that to increase psycholo ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/developing-psychological-flexibility

A Guide To Emotions (Psychology Tools For Living Well)

Cognitive behavioral therapy can help your clients to live happier and more fulfilling lives. Psychology Tools for Living Well is a self-help course ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/a-guide-to-emotions-psychology-tools-for-living-well

Interpersonal Beliefs And Styles

Interpersonal issues and relationship problems form an important part of what clients bring to therapy: they might present as clients’ current conce ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/interpersonal-beliefs-and-styles

Emotional Reasoning

The Emotional Reasoning information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effec ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotional-reasoning

Uncertainty Beliefs – Experiment Record

Situations which are uncertain, novel, or ambiguous trigger a state of uncertainty. Evidence indicates that individuals who are dispositionally high i ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/uncertainty-beliefs-experiment-record

Self-Monitoring Record (Universal)

Developing self-monitoring skills teaches clients to systematically observe and record specific targets such as their own thoughts, body feelings, emo ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/self-monitoring-record-universal

Attention Training Practice Record

When people struggle to control the focus of their attention, they find it much harder to interrupt cycles of worry, rumination, and other forms of se ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/attention-training-practice-record

Demanding Standards – Living Well With Your Personal Rules

Demanding Standards – Living Well With Your Personal Rules is a guide written for clients who have high or perfectionistic standards which cause th ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/demanding-standards-living-well-with-your-personal-rules

Disqualifying The Positive

This Disqualifying the Positive information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists work more ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/disqualifying-the-positive

Avoidance Hierarchy (Archived)

NOTE: An improved version of this resource is available here: Fear Ladder. Older versions of a resource may be archived in the event that they are ava ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/avoidance-hierarchy

Intrusive Memory Record

Intrusive (unwanted, involuntary) memories are a common feature of PTSD, but also depression and other conditions. This Intrusive Memory Record is des ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/intrusive-memory-record

Discounting In Perfectionism – The Ratchet Effect

When individuals with perfectionism successfully meet their demanding standards, these accomplishments are often discounted as “easy to do,” “no ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/discounting-in-perfectionism-the-ratchet-effect

Depression - Self-Monitoring Record

Developing self-monitoring skills teaches clients to systematically observe and record specific targets such as their own thoughts, body feelings, emo ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/depression-self-monitoring-record

Schema Bias

Core beliefs (schemas) are self-sustaining. They act to 'attract' confirmatory evidence and 'repel' or 'distort' disconfirmatory evidence. This inform ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/schema-bias

Activity Diary (No Time Intervals)

Activity diaries can be used for activity monitoring during an assessment phase of therapy, symptom monitoring during therapy, correlating activity wi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/activity-diary-no-time-intervals

Rumination - Self-Monitoring Record

Developing self-monitoring skills teaches clients to systematically observe and record specific targets such as their own thoughts, body feelings, emo ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/rumination-self-monitoring-record

Functional Analysis With Intervention Planning

This classic A-B-C functional analysis worksheet can be used to collect information about what came before a behavior (antecedents), the behavior itse ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/functional-analysis-with-intervention-planning

What Is Imagery Rescripting?

Unwanted images are a feature common to a variety of problems including PTSD and depression. Imagery rescripting is an evidence-based treatment techni ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/what-is-imagery-rescripting

Challenging Your Negative Thinking (Archived)

NOTE: An improved version of this resource is available here: Evaluating Unhelpful Automatic Thoughts. Older versions of a resource may be archived in ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/challenging-your-negative-thinking

Court Trial Thought Challenging Record (Archived)

NOTE: An improved version of this resource is available here: Thought Record - Courtroom Trial. Older versions of a resource may be archived in the ev ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/court-trial-thought-challenging-record

Hindsight Bias

Hindsight bias describes the tendency that people have – once an outcome is known – to believe that they predicted (or could have predicted) an ou ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/hindsight-bias

CBT Daily Activity Diary With Enjoyment And Mastery Ratings

Activity diaries can be used for activity monitoring during an assessment phase of therapy, symptom monitoring during therapy, correlating activity wi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cbt-daily-activity-diary-e-m

Dysfunctional Thought Record

The Dysfunctional Thought Record is a worksheet to record and challenge dysfunctional thoughts. It encourages clients to identify the involvement of a ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/dysfunctional-thought-record

Mind Reading

The Mind Reading information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effectively ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mind-reading

Externalizing

The Externalizing information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effectively ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/externalizing

Body Scan (Audio)

The Body Scan is a mindfulness exercise encouraging present-moment awareness, with the sensations of the body being used as an anchor for mindful atte ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/body-scan-audio

Mental Filter

The Mental Filter information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effectively ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mental-filter

Arbitrary Inference

Arbitrary inference is one of the earliest and broadest cognitive disotortions described in CBT. Beck defines it as "the process of forming an interpr ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/arbitrary-inference

What Is Burnout?

Our ‘What Is … ?’ series is a collection of one-page information handouts for common mental health conditions. Friendly and explanatory, handout ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/what-is-burnout

Being With Difficulty (Audio)

Being With Difficulty is a mindfulness exercise which gently brings present-moment awareness to bear upon thoughts and feelings that are more difficul ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/being-with-difficulty-audio

Fortune Telling

The Fortune Telling information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effective ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/fortune-telling

Magnification And Minimization

The Magnification And Minimization information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/magnification-and-minimization

Disqualifying Others

This Disqualifying Others information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more eff ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/disqualifying-others

What Do People Think About Themselves (CYP)?

People are not born with low self-esteem. Instead, we develop ideas about ourselves and our place in the world as a result of our life experiences. Pe ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/what-do-people-think-about-themselves-cyp

Exercise For Mental Health

Exercise is an evidence-based treatment for depression and anxiety and research suggests that, in the treatment of depression, exercise interventions ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/exercise-for-mental-health

Activity Selection

Activity selection is a technique for rating the difficulty of different activities. It is a helpful tool when clients have difficulty choosing betwee ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/activity-selection

Mastery And Pleasure Activity Diary

Activity diaries can be used for activity monitoring during an assessment phase of therapy, symptom monitoring during therapy, correlating activity wi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mastery-and-pleasure-activity-diary

Personalizing

The Personalizing information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effectively ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/personalizing

Am I Experiencing Depression?

Depression is a condition characterized by an extended period of low mood, anhedonia, and reduction in activity. Am I Experiencing Depression? is an i ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/am-i-experiencing-depression

Mindfulness Of Breath (Short Version) (Audio)

Mindfulness Of Breath (Short version) is a mindfulness exercise encouraging present-moment awareness, using the breath as an anchor for the attention. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mindfulness-of-breath-short-version-audio

Overgeneralization

The Overgeneralization information handout forms part of the cognitive distortions series, designed to help clients and therapists to work more effect ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/overgeneralization

Perspective-Taking

Cognitive restructuring techniques in CBT teach clients ways of analyzing situations in ways that might initially be unfamiliar. A simple way of intro ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/perspective-taking

Transdiagnostic Processes

A ‘transdiagnostic process’ is the label given to a mechanism which is present across disorders and which is either a risk or maintaining factor f ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/transdiagnostic-processes

Daily Monitoring Form

Activity diaries can be used for activity monitoring during an assessment phase of therapy, symptom monitoring during therapy, correlating activity wi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/daily-monitoring-form

Links to external resources

Psychology Tools makes every effort to check external links and review their content. However, we are not responsible for the quality or content of external links and cannot guarantee that these links will work all of the time.

Assessment

  • Valued Living Questionnaire (Version 2) | Wilson, Groom | 2002
  • Ruminative responses scale | Treynor, Gonzalez, Nolen-Hoeksema | 2003
  • Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) | Zimmerman, Chelminski, McGlinchey, Posternak | 2008
    • Scale
    • Zimmerman, M., Chelminski, I., McGlinchey, J. B., & Posternak, M. A. (2008). A clinically useful depression outcome scale. Comprehensive psychiatry, 49(2), 131-140.
  • Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale | Zung | 1965
    • Scale
    • Reference Zung, W. W. (1965). A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12(1), 63-70.
  • Severity Measure For Depression – Adult (Adapted from the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9)) | APA (Spitzer, Williams, Kroenke and colleagues)
  • Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) | Kroenke, Spitzer | 2002
    • Scale phqscreeners.com
    • Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, R. L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.
  • Montgomery & Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) | Montgomery, Asberg | 1979
    • Scale
    • MADRS Score Card
    • Montgomery, S.A., Asberg, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134 (4): 382–89.
  • Hamilton Rating Scale For Depression (HAM-D) | Hamilton | 1960
    • Scale
    • Hamilton M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 23, 56–62.
  • Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS) | Cox, Holden, Sagovsky | 1987
    • Scale
    • Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 150(6), 782-786.

Case Conceptualization / Case Formulation

  • Developing and using a case formulation to guide cognitive behaviour therapy | Persons | 2015
  • Cognitive conceptualisation (excerpt from Basics and Beyond) | J. Beck

Guides and workbooks

  • Mood And Substance Use | NDARC: Mills, Marel, Baker, Teesson, Dore, Kay-Lambkin, Manns, Trimingham | 2011

Information Handouts

Information (Professional)

Self-Help Programmes

Treatment Guide

  • Depression In Adults: Treatment And Management (NICE Guideline) | NICE | 2022
  • Behavioural activation treatment for depression (BATD) manual | Lejuez, Hopko & Hopko | 2001
  • Suicide and self injury: a practitioners guide | Forensic Psychology Practice Ltd | 1999
  • Behavioural activation treatment for depression – revised (BATD-R) manual | Lejuez, Hopko, Acierno, Daughters, Pagoto | 2011
  • Metacognitive Training For Depression (D-MCT) Manual | Jelinek, Schneider, Hauschild, Moritz | 2023
  • Metacognitive Training For Depression | Jelinek, Hauschildt, Moritz & Schneider | 2022
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in young people: a modular treatment manual | Orygen | 2015
  • Group therapy manual for cognitive behavioral treatment of depression | Muñoz, Miranda | 1993
  • CBT For Depression In Veterans And Military Service Members – Therapist Manual | Wenzel, Brown, Carlin | 2011
  • Cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in young people: manual for therapists | Improving Mood with Psychoanalytic and Cognitive Therapies (IMPACT) Study CBT Sub-Group | 2010
  • Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Group Program For Depression | Milner, Tischler, DeSena, Rimer
  • Manual for group cognitive-behavioral therapy of major depression: a reality management approach (Instructor’s manual) | Muñoz, Ippen, Rao, Le, Dwyer | 2000
  • Individual therapy manual for cognitive-behavioural treatment of depression | Ricardo Muñoz, Jeanne Miranda | 1996
  • Depression In Adults: Recognition And Management | National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines | 2009

Worksheets

Recommended Reading

  • Behavioural activation treatment for depression: returning to contextual roots | Jacobson, Martell, Dimidjian | 2001

What Is Depression?

Signs and Symptoms of Depression

To meet DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder an individual must have experienced five of the following symptoms for at least two weeks:

  • a depressed mood that is present most of the day, nearly every day
  • diminished interest in activities which were previously experienced as pleasurable
  • fatigue or a loss of energy
  • sleep disturbance (insomnia or hypersomnia)
  • feelings of worthlessness, self-reproach, or excessive guilt
  • a diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness
  • recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, or suicidal behavior
  • changes in appetite marked by a corresponding weight change
  • psychomotor agitation or retardation to a degree which is observable by others

Psychological Models and Theory of Depression

Beck’s cognitive theory of depression (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979) forms the basis for cognitive behavioral approaches for the treatment of depression. Beck’s theory proposes that there are different levels of cognition that can be dysfunctional in depression: core beliefs, rules and assumptions, and negative automatic thoughts. CBT aims to balance negatively biased cognition with more rational and accurate thoughts, beliefs, and assumptions. CBT also systematically aims to increase levels of rewarding activity.

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) proposes that distress, including symptoms of depression, are the result of psychological inflexibility (Hayes, Luoma, Bond, Masuda, & Lillis, 2006). Indicators of psychological inflexibility include:

  • ‘buying in’ to negative thoughts and narratives;
  • engaging in worry or rumination that takes us away from the present moment;
  • losing contact with our values—what is important to us.

Evidence-Based Psychological Approaches for Working with Depression

Many psychological therapies have an evidence base for working with depression:

Resources for Working with Depression

Psychology Tools resources available for working therapeutically with depression may include:

  • psychological models of depression
  • information handouts for depression
  • exercises for depression
  • CBT worksheets for depression
  • self-help programs for depression

References

  • Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.
  • Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. BehaviourResearch and Therapy, 44(1), 1–25.