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Anxiety

Fear and its associated reactions (freeze, flight, fight) can be useful responses to a dangerous or threatening situation. However, clients suffering from anxiety disorders experience these reactions too strongly, too often, or in inappropriate situations - and they can be distressing and exhausting. Psychology Tools can help you with CBT for anxiety - our anxiety worksheets are designed to help clients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), health anxiety (hypochondriasis), panic disorder, phobias, and social anxiety. Read more
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Therapy tool

A Guide To Emotions (Psychology Tools For Living Well)

Cognitive behavioral therapy can help your clients to live happier and more fulfilling lives. Psychology Tools for Living Well is a self-help course ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/a-guide-to-emotions-psychology-tools-for-living-well/

Chapter

Anxiety Self-Monitoring Record

Self-monitoring is a fundamental tool in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). This Anxiety Self-Monitoring Record is designed to help clients to bette ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/anxiety-self-monitoring-record/

Worksheet

Approach Instead Of Avoiding (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses avoi ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/approach-instead-of-avoiding-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

Assertive Communication

Communicating and acting assertively is an interpersonal skill that helps people to maintain healthy relationships, resolve interpersonal conflict, an ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/assertive-communication/

Information Handout

Assertive Responses

Being able to communicate assertively is an essential skill for developing and maintaining healthy relationships and positive self-esteem. Individuals ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/assertive-responses/

Exercise

Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) automatically regulates the function of body systems outside of voluntary control. The Autonomic Nervous System han ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/autonomic-nervous-system/

Information Handout

Avoidance Hierarchy

Avoidance and safety-seeking behavior serves to maintain anxiety, and exposure to the fear stimuli/situation is an effective treatment for anxiety. Th ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/avoidance-hierarchy/

Exercise

Behavioral Experiment

Behavioral experiments are planned experiential activities to test the validity of a belief. They are one of the most powerful techniques available to ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/behavioral-experiment/

Worksheet

Behavioral Experiment (Portrait Format)

Behavioral experiments allow individuals to test the validity of their beliefs and assumptions. They are a core experiential technique for therapeutic ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/behavioral-experiment-portrait-format/

Worksheet

Behaviors In Panic (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses beha ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/behaviors-in-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

Body Sensations In Panic (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses body ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/body-sensations-in-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

Breathing To Calm The Body Sensations Of Panic (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses the ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/breathing-to-calm-the-body-sensations-of-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

CBT Appraisal Model

The CBT Appraisal Model worksheet is a transdiagnostic formulation tool. The centrality of appraisals underpins all of the disorder-specific cognitive ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cbt-appraisal-model/

Worksheet

Challenging Your Negative Thinking

A cornerstone of cognitive behavioral therapy is that an individual’s interpretation of an event determines how they feel and behave. We all experie ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/challenging-your-negative-thinking/

Guide

Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is a process by which stimuli become associated with responses. This information handout describes key principles of Classical ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/classical-conditioning/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Depersonalization (Hunter, Phillips, Chalder, Sierra, David, 2003)

Depersonalization is an experience where an individual feels a sense of detachment from themselves, or estrangement from their perceptions, actions, a ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-depersonalization-hunter-phillips-chalder-sierra-david-2003/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Fear Of Body Sensations

Fear of bodily sensations is present in a number of conditions, most notably panic disorder. The Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Fear Of Bodily Sensatio ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-fear-of-body-sensations/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD: Dugas, Gagnon, Ladouceur, Freeston, 1998)

Individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) report significant worry which they find difficult to control and experience as distressing. Numer ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad-dugas-gagnon-ladouceur-freeston-1998/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Health Anxiety (Salkovskis, Warwick, Deale, 2003)

Health anxiety is characterized by a preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness, and a high level of anxiety about health. People with h ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-health-anxiety-salkovskis-warwick-deale-2003/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Intolerance Of Uncertainty (Hebert, Dugas, 2019)

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been defined as “an underlying fear of the unknown”. Intolerance of uncertainty is a risk factor for the deve ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-intolerance-of-uncertainty-hebert-dugas-2019/

Information Handout

Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Panic (Clark, 1986)

The Cognitive Behavioral Model Of Panic identifies catastrophic misinterpretation of body sensations as a criticial maintenance factor which serves to ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/cognitive-behavioral-model-of-panic-clark-1986/

Information Handout

Combined Relaxation Exercise (Audio)

The Combined Relaxation Exercise is an audio track from the Psychology Tools For Relaxation Audio Collection. It is designed to help anyone experienci ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/combined-relaxation-exercise-audio/

Audio

Coping With Body Sensations (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses inte ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/coping-with-body-sensations-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

Critical Care And PTSD

The Critical Care And PTSD information handout is designed to help clients to learn about the properties of critical care that can increase the likeli ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/critical-care-and-ptsd/

Information Handout

Decatastrophizing

Catastrophic thinking (magnification) is characteristic of many anxiety problems. This CBT worksheet for decatastrophizing is a tool for cognitive res ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/decatastrophizing/

Exercise

Developing Psychological Flexibility

Developing Psychological Flexibility is a client information handout which can be used to familiarize clients with the ACT model. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/developing-psychological-flexibility/

Information Handout

Dissociation Record

Dissociation is a set of physical and behavioral adaptations (‘skills’) that human beings have developed because they can help us to survive extre ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/dissociation-record/

Worksheet

Embracing Uncertainty

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) was first described in individuals suffering from Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Many behaviors associated with G ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/embracing-uncertainty/

Exercise

Emotions In Panic (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses the ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotions-in-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

Emotions Motivate Actions

Many clients find it helpful to recognize the range of actions that are motivated by different emotional states. This worksheet encourages clients to ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/emotions-motivate-actions/

Information Handout

Exercise For Mental Health

Exercise is an evidence-based treatment for depression and anxiety and research suggests that, in the treatment of depression, exercise interventions ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/exercise-for-mental-health/

Information Handout

Exposure Practice Form

Exposure is an effective treatment for many forms of anxiety. The Exposure Practice Form is a CBT worksheet which guides therapists and clients throug ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/exposure-practice-form/

Exercise

Facing Your Fears (CYP)

Graded or graduated exposure is a traditional way of overcoming fears and phobias. The therapist helps the client to draw up a list of feared situatio ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/facing-your-fears-cyp/

Exercise

Fight or Flight (CYP)

The Fight Or Flight (CYP) information handout has been specifically designed for younger children and includes carefully simplified language. The full ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/fight-or-flight-cyp/

Information Handout

Fight Or Flight Response

The fight or flight response is an automatic physiological reaction to an event that is perceived as stressful or frightening. The perception of threa ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/fight-or-flight-response/

Information Handout

Grounding Statements (Audio)

Grounding techniques are used to help people to reorient themselves to the present moment and to safety. Grounding Statements are a form of cognitive ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/grounding-statements-audio/

Audio

Grounding Techniques

Individuals who have experienced trama often find it difficult to stay within the ‘window of tolerance’. Grounding techniques (which can b ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/grounding-techniques/

Exercise

Grounding Techniques Menu

Dissociation can be described as a shift of a person’s attention away from the present moment. When working with traumatized clients, this shift oft ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/grounding-techniques-menu/

Information Handout

Habituation

The Habituation information sheets are designed to help clinicians to explain the concept of habituation and its role in exposure therapy. The handout ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/habituation/

Information Handout

Health Anxiety Formulation

Health anxiety is characterized by a preoccupation with having or acquiring a serious illness, and a high level of anxiety about health. People with h ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/health-anxiety-formulation/

Information Handout

Health Anxiety Thought Monitoring Record

Individuals with health anxiety experience clinically significant distress associated with health concerns. This thought-monitoring record enables cli ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/health-anxiety-thought-monitoring-record/

Worksheet

Health Anxiety Thought Record

Individuals with health anxiety experience clinically significant distress associated with health concerns. This thought-challenging record enables cl ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/health-anxiety-thought-record/

Worksheet

How Breathing Affects Feelings

Normal, anxious, and exercise breathing have significant effects upon our physiology and our emotions. This information handout explains the physiolog ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-breathing-affects-feelings/

Exercise

How Does This All Add Up To A Panic Attack? (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter discusses the ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-does-this-all-add-up-to-a-panic-attack-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

How Is Panic Disorder Different From A Panic Attack? (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter disambiguates ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-is-panic-disorder-different-from-a-panic-attack-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

How Much Do You Know About Panic? (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter includes a qui ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-much-do-you-know-about-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

How Your Body Responds To Stress

Many clients identify with the concept of ‘stress’ more readily than ‘threat’ and the The How Your Body Responds To Stress information handou ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/how-your-body-responds-to-stress/

Information Handout

Identifying The Meaning Of Body Sensations

Some anxiety disorders (including panic and health anxiety), are concerned with body sensations and symptoms. The Identifying The Meaning Of Body Sens ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/identifying-the-meaning-of-body-sensations/

Worksheet

Interoceptive Exposure

Misappraisals of body sensations trigger emotional and physiological reactions of fear and heightened arousal. These feelings motivate behavioral resp ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/interoceptive-exposure/

Exercise

Interpersonal Beliefs And Styles

Interpersonal issues and relationship problems form an important part of what clients bring to therapy: they might present as clients’ current conce ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/interpersonal-beliefs-and-styles/

Worksheet

Intolerance Of Uncertainty

Uncertainty is a normal part of life – we can never be 100% sure about what will happen next. Many people feel good about uncertainty and live lives ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/intolerance-of-uncertainty/

Information Handout

Introduction To CBT (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter includes a bri ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/introduction-to-cbt-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

Intrusive Memory Record

Intrusive (unwanted, involuntary) memories are a common feature of PTSD, but also depression and other conditions. This Intrusive Memory Record is des ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/intrusive-memory-record/

Worksheet

Intrusive Thoughts Brain Metaphor

Intrusive thoughts are a common but sometimes distressing cognitive phenomenon. This information handout uses a simple metaphor to explain why we expe ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/intrusive-thoughts-brain-metaphor/

Information Handout

Learning To Relax (CYP)

Stress and tension are prevalent complaints amongst children and young people. Teaching relaxation exercises can engender a beneficial sense of contro ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/learning-to-relax-cyp/

Exercise

Living With Worry And Anxiety Amidst Global Uncertainty

This free guide was published in March 2020 in response to the coronavirus pandemic. It is designed for anyone who is experiencing anxiety or worry. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/living-with-worry-and-anxiety-amidst-global-uncertainty/

Free Guide

Making Sense Of Your Panic (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter brings togethe ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/making-sense-of-your-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

Maximizing The Effectiveness Of Exposure Therapy

Despite its position as the leading treatment technique for anxiety disorders, not all clients respond to exposure therapy and some individuals relaps ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/maximizing-the-effectiveness-of-exposure-therapy/

Information Handout

Mindful Attention (Audio)

Mindful Attention is a technique for becoming aware of one’s thoughts and experiences, and being able to observe these as transient mental events. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/mindful-attention-audio/

Audio

Monitoring Your Panic (Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic)

Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic takes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) approach to this common anxiety problem. This chapter introduces tec ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/monitoring-your-panic-psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

Chapter

Motivational Systems (Emotional Regulation Systems)

At the heart of Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) is an evolutionary model of human motivational systems. Developed by Paul Gilbert it is a helpful len ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/motivational-systems-emotional-regulation-systems/

Information Handout

Panic Attack Progress Record

Recovery often has a fluctuating course and it is important to monitor progress in cognitive behavioral therapy. Clients can use the Panic Attack Prog ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/panic-attack-progress-record/

Worksheet

Panic Attack Record Form

Self-monitoring of thoughts, feelings and symptoms is an essential skill for clients engaged in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The Panic Attack R ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/panic-attack-record-form/

Worksheet

Panic Diary

The Panic Diary is a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) diary for panic symptoms. Clients can record panic attack frequency along with information abo ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/panic-diary/

Worksheet

Panic Symptom Tracker

Self-monitoring of thoughts, feelings, and symptoms is an essential skill in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). This symptom tracker helps clients to ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/panic-symptom-tracker/

Worksheet

Peaceful Place (Audio)

The Peaceful Place exercise guides the listener through a short imagery exercise designed to facilitate the visualization of soothing imagery and noti ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/peaceful-place-audio/

Audio

Problem Solving (CYP)

Effective problem solving is an essential life skill and this Problem Solving worksheet is designed to guide children and adolescents through steps wh ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/problem-solving-cyp/

Exercise

Progressive Muscle Relaxation

Progressive relaxation training originated in the 1930’s as a treatment for tension and anxiety. Edmund Jacobsen developed a systematic and lengthy ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/progressive-muscle-relaxation/

Exercise

Progressive Muscle Relaxation (Audio)

The Progressive Muscle Relaxation exercise guides the listener through a sequence in which muscle groups are tensed and relaxed. ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/progressive-muscle-relaxation-audio/

Audio

Progressive Muscle Relaxation (Edition 1)

Muscle tension is one reaction to stress and anxiety. This exercise includes instructions for Progressive Muscle Relaxation, a technique for promoting ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/progressive-muscle-relaxation-edition-1/

Exercise

Properties Of Trauma Memories

Important properties of trauma memories include involuntary recall, ‘nowness’, vividness, and immutability. People who have experienced t ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/properties-of-trauma-memories/

Information Handout

Psychology Tools For Living Well

Cognitive behavioral therapy can help your clients to live happier and more fulfilling lives. Psychology Tools for Living Well is a self-help course ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/psychology-tools-for-living-well/

eBook

Psychology Tools For Mindfulness Audio Collection

The Psychology Tools For Mindfulness Audio Collection is the perfect way to introduce your clients to the practice of mindfulness. Developed by a clin ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/psychology-tools-for-mindfulness-audio-collection/

Audio Collection

Psychology Tools For Overcoming Panic

This helpful workbook will teach you everything you need to know about panic. Drawing upon the evidence base, Psychology Tools for Overcoming Panic  ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/psychology-tools-for-overcoming-panic/

eBook

Psychology Tools For Relaxation Audio Collection

The Psychology Tools For Relaxation Audio Collection is designed to help anyone experiencing stress or heightened physiological arousal. The audio col ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/psychology-tools-for-relaxation-audio-collection/

Audio Collection

Reciprocal CBT Formulation

CBT therapists often describe finding it difficult to apply CBT skills when clients bring relational problems to therapy. Familiar methods of visua ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/reciprocal-cbt-formulation/

Worksheet

Recognizing Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia is characterized by a marked fear of situations such as open spaces or public places. Recognizing Agoraphobia compares the DSM-5 and ICD- ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/recognizing-agoraphobia/

Information Handout

Recognizing Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is characterized by an extended period of excessive worry. The DSM also emphasizes the importance of the client’s ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/recognizing-generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad/

Information Handout

Recognizing Panic Attacks And Panic Disorder

Panic attacks are characterized by sudden surges of intense fear or discomfort, and panic disorder is characterized by recurrent panic attacks. Recogn ... https://www.psychologytools.com/resource/recognizing-panic-attacks-and-panic-disorder/

Information Handout

Assessment

  • Brief Fear Of Negative Evaluation Scale | Leary | 1983
  • Fear Questionnaire (FQ) (Phobia) | Marks, Matthews | 1979
    • Scale download archived copy
    • Marks, I. M., & Mathews, A. M. (1979). Brief standard self-rating for phobic patients. Behaviour Research and Therapy17(3), 263-267.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) | Spitzer, Kroenke, Williams, Lowe | 2006
    • Scale  download
    • Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Lowe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder. Arch Inern Med. 2006;166:1092-1097.
  • Hamilton Rating Scale For Anxiety (HAM-A) | Hamilton | 1959
    • Scale download archived copy
    • Hamilton, M. (1959).The assessment of anxiety states by rating. British Journal of Medical Psychology 32, 50-55.
  • Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI) | Salkovskis, Rimes, Warwick, Clark | 2002
    • Scale download
    • Salkovskis, P. M., Rimes, K. A., Warwick, H. M. C., & Clark, D. M. (2002). The Health Anxiety Inventory: development and validation of scales for the measurement of health anxiety and hypochondriasis. Psychological Medicine, 32(05), 843-853.
  • Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR) | Liebowitz | 1987
  • Mobility Inventory For Agoraphobia (MIA) | Chambless, Caputo, Jasin, Gracely, Williams | 1985
    • Scale outcometracker.org  archive.org
    • Chambless, D. L., Caputo, G. C., Jasin, S. E., Gracely, E. J., & Williams, C. (1985). The mobility inventory for agoraphobia. Behaviour research and therapy23(1), 35-44.
  • Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) | Shear, Brown, Barlow, Money, Sholomskas, Woods, Gorman, Papp | 1997
    • Scale download archived copy
    • Shear, M. K., Brown, T. A., Barlow, D. H., Money, R., Sholomskas, D. E., Woods, S. W., … & Papp, L. A. (1997). Multicenter collaborative panic disorder severity scale. American Journal of Psychiatry154(11), 1571-1575.
  • Penn State Worry Questionnaire | Meyer, Miller, Metzger, Borkovec | 1990
    • Scale outcometracker.org archive.org
    • Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the penn state worry questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy28(6), 487-495.
  • Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale | Spence | 1998
  • Severity Measure For Agoraphobia | Craske, Wittchen, Bogels, Stein, Andrews, Lebu | 2013
  • Severity Measure For Generalized Anxiety Disorder | Craske, Wittchen, Bogels, Stein, Andrews, Lebeu | 2013
  • Severity Measure For Panic Disorder | Craske, Wittchen, Bogels, Stein, Andrews, Lebeu | 2013
  • Severity Measure For Social Anxiety Disorder | Craske, Wittchen, Bogels, Stein, Andrews, Lebeu | 2013
  • Severity Measure For Specific Phobia | Craske, Wittchen, Bogels, Stein, Andrews, Lebeu | 2013
  • Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) | Connor, Davidson, Churchill, Sherwood, Weisler, Foa | 2000
  • Social Phobia Scale | Mattick, Clarke | 1995

Intervention

Treatment guidelines

  • NICE guidelines for GAD and panic | 2011  download
  • NICE guidelines for social anxiety disorder | 2013  download

Treatment manuals

  • Comprehensive cognitive behavior therapy for social phobia: a treatment manual | Ledley, Foa, Huppert, Clark | 2006  download
  • Treatment manual for panic disorder (IAPT treatment manual for high intensity CBT therapists) | Clark, Salkovskis | 2009 download archived copy
  • A brief cognitive-behavioural treatment for social anxiety disorder | Morris, Mensink, Stewart  download  archived copy

Useful resources

  • Assertive defense of the self | Padesky | 1985 download archived copy
  • Interoceptive exposure definition | White, Basden, Barlow download archived copy
  • Task concentration training definition | Bögels download archived copy
  • Task concentration training and fear of blushing | Bögels, Mulkens, De Jong | 1997 download archived copy

Information Handouts

Generalized anxiety and mindfulness

Health anxiety

Panic

Panic

  • Panic self-help booklet by Dr Charles Young download archived copy
  • Panic self-help booklet from Glasgow STEPS including information about panic and self-help interventions download archived copy

Phobia

  • Phobia self-help booklet from Glasgow STEPS including information about phobia and self-help interventions download archived copy

Social anxiety

Social anxiety

  • ‘Shyness and social anxiety – a self help guide’ is an excellent resource download archived copy

Worksheets

Generalized anxiety and mindfulness

Panic

Social anxiety

Self-Help Programmes

Self-help programme for anxiety

Self-help programme for generalized anxiety and mindfulness

Self-help programme for health anxiety

  • Understanding health anxiety download
  • How health anxiety develops download
  • What keeps health anxiety going? download
  • Reducing your focus on health anxiety symptoms and worries download
  • Re-evaluating unhelpful health-related thinking download
  • Reducing checking and reassurance seeking download
  • Challenging avoidance and safety behaviors download
  • Adjusting health rules and assumptions download
  • Healthy living and self-management planning download

Self-help programme for panic

Self-help programme for social anxiety

Presentations

  • New developments in exposure therapy for anxiety and related disorders: the inhibitory learning approach | Blakey, Abramowitz | 2018  download archived copy
  • Desirable difficulties: optimizing exposure therapy for anxiety through inhibitory learning | Abramowitz, Jacoby, Blakey | 2018 download archived copy
  • GAD – a cognitive model and treatment download  archived copy
  • Bringing Specificity to Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Conceptualization and Treatment of GAD using Intolerance of Uncertainty as the Theme of Threat | Robichaud | 2013 download archived copy

Recommended Reading

General

  • Clark, D. M. (1999). Anxiety disorders: why they persist and how to treat them. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, S5-S27 download archived copy

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

  • Behar, E., DiMarco, I. D., Hekler, E. B., Mohlman, J., Staples, A. M. (2009). Current theoretical models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): Conceptual review and treatment implications. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 1011-1023 download archived copy
  • Bottesi, G., Ghisi, M., Carraro, E., Barclay, N., Payne, R., & Freeston, M. H. (2016). Revising the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Evidence from UK and Italian Undergraduate Samples. Frontiers in psychology7, 1723 download  archived copy
  • Milne, S., Lomax, C., & Freeston, M. H. (2019). A review of the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and threat appraisal in anxiety. the Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12. download

A number of treatment packages have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of GAD:

Laval model

  • Dugas, M. J., Gagnon, F., Ladouceur, R., & Freeston, M. H. (1998). Generalized anxiety disorder: A preliminary test of a conceptual model. Behaviour research and therapy36(2), 215-226.

Avoidance model of worry and GAD

  • Borkovec, T. D., Alcaine, O., & Behar, E. (2004). Avoidance theory of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Generalized anxiety disorder: Advances in research and practice2004.
  • Hjemdal, O., Hagen, R., Nordahl, H. M., & Wells, A. (2013). Metacognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Nature, evidence and an individual case illustration. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice20(3), 301-313 download  archived copy

Metacognitive model

  • Hjemdal, O., Hagen, R., Nordahl, H. M., & Wells, A. (2013). Metacognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Nature, evidence and an individual case illustration. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice20(3), 301-313.
  • Wells, A. (1995). Meta-cognition and worry: A cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy23(3), 301-320 download  archived copy

Emotional dysregulation model

  • Fresco, D. M., Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., & Ritter, M. (2013). Emotion regulation therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice20(3), 282-300 nih.gov
  • Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., Turk, C. L., & Fresco, D. M. (2002). Applying an emotion regulation framework to integrative approaches to generalized anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice9(1), 85-90 download  archived copy

Acceptance-based model of GAD

  • Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S. M. (2002). Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance‐based approaches with existing cognitive‐behavioral models. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice9(1), 54-68 download  archived copy
  • Roemer, L., Salters, K., Raffa, S. D., & Orsillo, S. M. (2005). Fear and avoidance of internal experiences in GAD: Preliminary tests of a conceptual model. Cognitive Therapy and Research29(1), 71-88.

Health Anxiety

  • Asmundson, G. J. G., Abramowitz, J. S., Richter, A. A., Whedon, M. (2010). Health anxiety: current perspectives and future directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12, 306-312 download
  • Furer, P., Walker, J. R. (2008). Death anxiety: A cognitive behavioural approach. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22(2), 167-182 download
  • Salkovskis, P. M., Warwick, H. M. C., Deale, A. C. (2003). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Severe and Persistent Health Anxiety (Hypochondriasis). Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 3, 353-367 btci.edina.clockss.org archived copy
  • Walker, J. R., Furer, P. (2008). Interoceptive exposure in the treatment of health anxiety and hypochondirasis. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 22(4), 366-378 download

Panic disorder

  • Clark D. M. (1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24:461–470. download archived copy
  • Clark, D. A. (1999). Anxiety disorders: Why they persist and how to treat them. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, S5-S27 download archived copy
  • Huppert, J. D., & Baker-Morissette, S. L. (2003). Beyond the manual: The insider’s guide to panic control treatment. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice10(1), 2-13.
  • Schmidt, N. B., Woolaway-Bickel, K., Trakowski, J. et al. (2000). Dismantling cognitive-behavioural treatment for panic disorder: Questioning the utility of breathing retraining. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(3), 417-424 download archived copy
  • Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive Therapy of Anxiety Disorders. Chichester: Wiley.

Social Anxiety Disorder

  • Clark, D. M. (2001). A cognitive perspective on social phobia download archived copy
  • Moscovitch, D. A. (2009). What is the core fear in social phobia? A new model to facilitate individualized case conceptualization and treatment. Cognitive and Behavioural Practice, 16. 123-134 download archived copy
  • Wild, Hackmann, Clark (2008). Rescripting early memories linked to negative images in social phobia: a pilot study. Behaviour Therapy, 39(1), 47-56. download
  • Veale, D. (2003). Treatment of social phobia. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 9, 258-264 download archived copy
  • Warnock-Parkes, E., Wild, J., Stott, R., Grey, N., Ehlers, A., & Clark, D. M. (2017). Seeing is believing: Using video feedback in cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder. Cognitive and behavioral practice, 24(2), 245-255. view archived copy

What Is Anxiety?

Signs and Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders

Different anxiety disorders are characterized by various foci of concern.

In addition to disorder-specific cognitive content, individuals experiencing anxiety disorders are likely to experience physical symptoms of anxiety including:

  • palpitations or accelerated heart rate
  • sweating
  • trembling or shaking
  • dry mouth
  • difficulty breathing
  • a feeling of choking
  • nausea or abdominal discomfort
  • dizziness
  • derealization or depersonalization
  • fear of losing control or passing out
  • fear of dying
  • hot flushes or cold chills
  • numbness or tingling
  • blushing
  • fear of vomiting
  • urgency or fear of urination or defecation

Psychological Models and Theories of Anxiety

One broad conceptualization of anxiety can be summarized by an ‘anxiety equation’ (Beck, Emery, & Greenberg, 1985; Salkovskis, Forrester, & Richards, 1998):

Anxiety = (perceived probability of therapy × perceived cost or awfulness of danger)

÷ (perceived ability to cope + perceived ‘rescue factors’)

Disorder-specific ‘CBT for anxiety’ cognitive models have been developed for all of the anxiety disorders. These are helpful in that they direct the therapist’s attention toward key interpretations and behaviors that act to perpetuate the anxiety disorders. For example, the critical mechanism that Clark identified in the cognitive model of panic (1986) is that body sensations are misinterpreted catastrophically as signs of danger, with concomitant effects upon emotions, behavior, and secondary cognitions.

Evidence-Based Psychological Approaches for Working with Anxiety

Cognitive behavior therapy has a strong evidence base for treating all of the anxiety disorders. Key components of CBT for anxiety interventions include exposure to the feared situations or stimulus, and an experimental approach to test the accuracy of beliefs.

Resources for Working with Anxiety

Psychology Tools resources available for working therapeutically with anxiety may include:

References

  • Beck, A. T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R. L. (1985). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.
  • Clark, D. M. (1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24(4), 461–470.
  • Salkovskis, P. M., Forrester, E., & Richards, C. (1998). Cognitive–behavioral approach to understanding obsessional thinking. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 173(S35), 53–63.