Skip to main content


Perfectionism has been identified as a risk and maintenance factor for a variety of problems including eating disorders, anxiety, and depression. It has been argued that it meets the criteria for being considered a transdiagnostic maintenance process.

  • Multidimensional perfectionism scale | Hewitt, Flett | 1990
  • The Almost Perfect Scale – Revised (APS-R) | Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, Johnson | 1996
    • Scale download archived copy
    • Website link
    • Slaney, R. B., Mobley, M., Trippi, J., Ashby, J. S., & Johnson, D. G. (1996). The Almost Perfect Scale–Revised. Unpublished manuscript, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
    • Slaney, R. B., Rice, K. G., Mobley, M., Trippi, J., & Ashby, J. S. (2001). The revised Almost Perfect Scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 130–145.
  • Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory | Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein, Gray | 1998
    • Scale download archived copy
    • Scoring download archived copy
    • Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., Blankstein, K. R., & Gray, L. (1998). Psychological distress and the frequency of perfectionistic thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(5), 1363-1381.

Center For Clinical Interventions

York St John University

  • Egan, S. J., Wade, T. D., & Shafran, R. (2011). Perfectionism as a transdiagnostic process: A clinical review. Clinical psychology review, 31(2), 203-212  download archived copy
  • Shafran, R., Coughtrey, A., & Kothari, R. (2016). New frontiers in the treatment of perfectionism. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 9(2), 156-170. download archived copy

Sign Up To The Free Newsletter

Early access – get informed about the latest resources first

Research summaries – stay informed about developments in therapy research

No spam – newsletters delivered monthly, we won’t share your details with anyone else

Confidence assured – unsubscribe at any time